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Azerbaijan vs. Armenia

Introduction

AzerbaijanArmenia
Background

Azerbaijan - a secular nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan remains involved in the protracted Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh was a primarily ethnic Armenian region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed which sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a ceasefire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. The 1994 ceasefire continues to hold, although violence continues along the line of contact separating the opposing forces, as well as the Azerbaijan-Armenia international border. The final status of Nagorno-Karabakh remains the subject of international mediation by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group, which works to help the sides settle the conflict peacefully. The OSCE Minsk Group is co-chaired by the United States, France, and Russia.

In the 25 years following its independence, Azerbaijan succeeded in significantly reducing the poverty rate and has directed revenues from its oil and gas production to develop the country’s infrastructure. However, corruption remains a problem, and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. The country’s leadership has remained in the Aliyev family since Heydar ALIYEV became president in 1993 and was succeeded by his son, President Ilham ALIYEV in 2003. Following two national referendums in the past several years that eliminated presidential term limits and extended presidential terms from 5 to 7 years, President ALIYEV secured a fourth term as president in April 2018 in an election that international observers noted had serious shortcomings. Reforms are underway to diversify the country’s non-oil economy and additional reforms are needed to address weaknesses in government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, and the court system.

Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

Armenia remains involved in the protracted Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh was a primarily ethnic Armenian region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed which sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a ceasefire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. The 1994 ceasefire continues to hold, although violence continues along the line of contact separating the opposing forces, as well as the Armenia-Azerbaijan international border. The final status of Nagorno-Karabakh remains the subject of international mediation by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group, which works to help the sides settle the conflict peacefully. The OSCE Minsk Group is co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia.

Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries, but neither country ratified the Protocols, and Armenia officially withdrew from the Protocols in March 2018. In 2015, Armenia joined the Eurasian Economic Union alongside Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. In November 2017, Armenia signed a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with the EU. In spring 2018, Serzh SARGSIAN of the Republican Party of Armenia (RPA) stepped down and Civil Contract party leader Nikol PASHINYAN became prime minister.

Geography

AzerbaijanArmenia
Location
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Geographic coordinates
40 30 N, 47 30 E
40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

total: 29,743 sq km
land: 28,203 sq km
water: 1,540 sq km
Area - comparative
about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries
total: 2,468 km
border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
total: 1,570 km
border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climate
dry, semiarid steppe
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 384 m
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m
mean elevation: 1,792 m
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resources
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Land use
agricultural land: 57.6% (2016 est.)
arable land: 22.8% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 2.7% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 32.1% (2016 est.)
forest: 11.3% (2016 est.)
other: 31.1% (2016 est.)
agricultural land: 59.7% (2016 est.)
arable land: 15.8% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 42% (2016 est.)
forest: 9.1% (2016 est.)
other: 31.2% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land
14,277 sq km (2012)
2,740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
droughts
occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment - current issues
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton; surface and underground water are polluted by untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and agricultural run-off
soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation; pollution of Hrazdan and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Population distribution
highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country

Demographics

AzerbaijanArmenia
Population
10,205,810 (July 2020 est.)
3,021,324 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 22.84% (male 1,235,292/female 1,095,308)
15-24 years: 13.17% (male 714,718/female 629,494)
25-54 years: 45.29% (male 2,291,600/female 2,330,843)
55-64 years: 11.41% (male 530,046/female 634,136)
65 years and over: 7.29% (male 289,604/female 454,769) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 18.64% (male 297,320/female 265,969)
15-24 years: 11.63% (male 184,258/female 167,197)
25-54 years: 43.04% (male 639,101/female 661,421)
55-64 years: 14.08% (male 195,754/female 229,580)
65 years and over: 12.6% (male 154,117/female 226,607) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 32.6 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 34.2 years (2020 est.)
total: 36.6 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 38.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.77% (2020 est.)
-0.3% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
14.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
11.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-5.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 98.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 94.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 73.6 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)
total population: 75.6 years
male: 72.3 years
female: 79.2 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.88 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.65 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.1% (2019 est.)
0.1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groups
Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.)

note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians

Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.2%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
9,700 (2019 est.)
3,500 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)

note: religious affiliation for the majority of Azerbaijanis is largely nominal, percentages for actual practicing adherents are probably much lower

Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
<100 (2019 est.)
Languages
Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)

note: Russian is widely spoken

Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)

note: Russian is widely spoken

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2017)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2019)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2019)
Education expenditures
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.7% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 56.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: includes Nagorno-Karabakh
urban population: 63.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 87.4% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 12.6% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 95.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 84.5% of population
total: 93.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 15.5% of population
total: 6.4% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
2.341 million BAKU (capital) (2020)
1.086 million YEREVAN (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
26 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
26 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
4.9% (2013)
2.6% (2016)
Health expenditures
6.7% (2017)
10.4% (2017)
Physicians density
3.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
4.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
4.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
4.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
19.9% (2016)
20.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
23.8 years (2017 est.)
24.8 years (2017 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
54.9% (2011)
57.1% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.4
youth dependency ratio: 33.7
elderly dependency ratio: 9.7
potential support ratio: 10.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 48.4
youth dependency ratio: 30.9
elderly dependency ratio: 17.5
potential support ratio: 5.7 (2020 est.)

Government

AzerbaijanArmenia
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as "Land of Fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia
Government type
presidential republic
parliamentary democracy; note - constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 transformed the government to a parliamentary system
Capital
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

etymology: the name derives from the Persian designation of the city "bad-kube" meaning "wind-pounded city" and refers to the harsh winds and severe snow storms that can hit the city

note: at approximately 28 m below sea level, Baku's elevation makes it the lowest capital city in the world

name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: name likely derives from the ancient Urartian fortress of Erebuni established on the current site of Yerevan in 782 B.C. and whose impresive ruins still survive
Administrative divisions

66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);

rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab

cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax

11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Independence
30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 321 B.C. (Kingdom of Armenia established under the Orontid Dynasty), A.D. 884 (Armenian Kingdom reestablished under the Bagratid Dynasty); 1198 (Cilician Kingdom established); 28 May 1918 (Democratic Republic of Armenia declared)
National holiday
Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016
history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2007, 2008, 2015; note - a constitutional referendum scheduled for 4 May 2020 has been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

chief of state: President Armen SARKISSIAN (since 9 April 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 8 May 2018); Deputy Prime Ministers Mher GRIGORYAN and Tigran AVINYAN (since 16 January 2019)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 March 2018; prime minister elected by majority vote in 2 rounds if needed by the National Assembly; election last held on 14 January 2019
election results: Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10; Nikol PASHINYAN was chosen as prime minister by the parliament automatically after his party won a landslide victory in the December 2018 elections
note: After initially winning election on 8 May 2018, Nikol PASHINYAN resigned his post (but stayed on as acting prime minister) on 16 October 2018 to force a snap election (held on 9 December 2018) in which his bloc won more than 70% of the vote; PASHINYAN was reappointed prime minister on 14 January 2019
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 70, CSP 3, AVP 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, PDR 1, Great Order 1, VP 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 41, vacant 4
description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, currently 132; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 December 2018 (next elections to be held December 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - My Step Alliance 70.4%, BHK 8.3%, Bright Armenia 6.4%, RPA 4.7%, ARF 3.9%, other 6.3%; seats by party - My Step Alliance 88, BHK 26, Bright Armenia 18; composition - men 112, women 20, percent of women 15.2%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts
highest courts: Court of Cassation (consists of the Criminal Chamber with a chairman and 5 judges and the Civil and Administrative Chamber with a chairman and 10 judges – with both civil and administrative specializations); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; judges can serve until age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70
subordinate courts: criminal and civil appellate courts; administrative appellate court; first instance courts; specialized administrative and bankruptcy courts
Political parties and leaders
Azerbaijan Democratic Enlightenment Party
Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Great Order Party
Islamic Party of Azerbaijan [Mavsum SAMADOV]
Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
National Renaissance Party
Party for Democratic Reforms (PDR)
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
Unity Party (VP) [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF ("Dashnak" Party) [Hakob TER-KHACHATURYAN]
Bright Armenia [Edmon MARUKYAN]
Citizen's Decision [Suren SAHAKYAN]
Civil Contract [Nikol PASHINYAN]
Free Democrats [Khachatur KOKOBELYAN]
Heritage Party [Raffi HOVANNISIAN]
Prosperous Armenia or BHK [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Republic [Aram SARGSYAN]
Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]
Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) or OEK [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
Sasna Tser [Varuzhan AVETISYAN]
International organization participation
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Ambassador Varuzhan NERSESSYAN (since 11 January 2019)
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Earle LITZENBERGER (since 12 March 2019)
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
embassy: 111 Azadliq Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
chief of mission: Ambassador Lynne M. TRACEY (since 5 March 2019)
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
embassy:

1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082

mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a vertical crescent moon and an eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it
National anthem
name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN

note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

AzerbaijanArmenia
Economy - overview

Prior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports and to some non-export sectors. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. First gas to Turkey through the SGC is expected in 2018 with project completion expected by 2020-21.

Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 0.8% decline in 2017, highlighted by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline was accompanied by higher inflation, a weakened banking sector, and two sharp currency devaluations in 2015. Azerbaijan’s financial sector continued to struggle. In May 2017, Baku allowed the majority state-owed International Bank of Azerbaijan (IBA), the nation’s largest bank, to default on some of its outstanding debt and file for restructuring in Azerbaijani courts; IBA also filed in US and UK bankruptcy courts to have its restructuring recognized in their respective jurisdictions.

Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports - mainly in the agricultural sector - with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others. It is also improving Baku airport and the Caspian Sea port of Alat for use as a regional transportation and logistics hub.

Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to develop export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the president approved a strategic roadmap for economic reforms that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, information technology, and tourism. In October 2017, the long-awaited Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, stretching from the Azerbaijani capital to Kars in north-eastern Turkey, began limited service.

Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agro industrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Armenia joined the World Trade Organization in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been largely ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to raise its economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to volatility in the global commodity markets and the economic challenges in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support, as most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 12-14% of GDP. Armenia joined the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015, but has remained interested in pursuing closer ties with the EU as well, signing a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement with the EU in November 2017. Armenia’s rising government debt is leading Yerevan to tighten its fiscal policies – the amount is approaching the debt to GDP ratio threshold set by national legislation.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$172.2 billion (2017 est.)
$172.1 billion (2016 est.)
$177.6 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$28.34 billion (2017 est.)
$26.37 billion (2016 est.)
$26.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
0.1% (2017 est.)
-3.1% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2015 est.)
7.5% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$17,500 (2017 est.)
$17,700 (2016 est.)
$18,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$9,500 (2017 est.)
$8,800 (2016 est.)
$8,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 6.1% (2017 est.)
industry: 53.5% (2017 est.)
services: 40.4% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 16.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
services: 54.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
4.9% (2015 est.)
32% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
13% (2017 est.)
12.6% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2017 est.)
-1.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
4.939 million (2019 est.)
1.507 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 37%
industry: 14.3%
services: 48.9% (2014)
agriculture: 36.3%
industry: 17%
services: 46.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate
5% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
18.9% (2017 est.)
18.8% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
33.7 (2008)
36.5 (2001)
31.5 (2014)
31.5 (2013 est.)
Budget
revenues: 9.556 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 10.22 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 2.644 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.192 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing
Industrial production growth rate
-3.8% (2017 est.)
5.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
fruit (especially grapes and apricots), vegetables; livestock
Exports
$15.15 billion (2017 est.)
$13.21 billion (2016 est.)
$2.361 billion (2017 est.)
$1.891 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
unwrought copper, pig iron, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, brandy, cigarettes, energy
Exports - partners
Italy 23.2%, Turkey 13.6%, Israel 6.1%, Russia 5.4%, Germany 5%, Czech Republic 4.6%, Georgia 4.3% (2017)
Russia 24.2%, Bulgaria 12.8%, Switzerland 12%, Georgia 6.9%, Germany 5.9%, China 5.5%, Iraq 5.4%, UAE 4.6%, Netherlands 4.1% (2017)
Imports
$9.037 billion (2017 est.)
$9.004 billion (2016 est.)
$3.771 billion (2017 est.)
$2.835 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars
Imports - partners
Russia 17.7%, Turkey 14.8%, China 9.9%, US 8.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Germany 5.1% (2017)
Russia 28%, China 11.5%, Turkey 5.5%, Germany 4.9%, Iran 4.3% (2017)
Debt - external
$17.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.987 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
1.723 (2017 est.)
1.5957 (2016 est.)
1.5957 (2015 est.)
1.0246 (2014 est.)
0.7844 (2013 est.)
drams (AMD) per US dollar -
487.9 (2017 est.)
480.49 (2016 est.)
480.49 (2015 est.)
477.92 (2014 est.)
415.92 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
54.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
53.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
51.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$6.681 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.204 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
$1.685 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
-$328 million (2017 est.)
-$238 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$40.67 billion (2017 est.)
$11.54 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$79.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.169 billion (2015 est.)
$4.087 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$19.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$228 million (2015 est.)
$215 million (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

$132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$139.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate
15% (10 March 2017)
15% (14 September 2016)

note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan

6.5% (14 December 2016)
10.5% (10 February 2015)

note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank

Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.56% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.41% (31 December 2017 est.)
17.36% (31 December 2016 est.)

note: average lending rate on loans up to one year

Stock of domestic credit
$13.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.44 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.712 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$6.202 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.629 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$6.202 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.629 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
23.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
22.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-4.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 13.4%
male: 11.4%
female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
total: 36.3%
male: 29.5%
female: 45.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 57.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 48.7% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 76.7% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 14.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 4.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 38.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -50.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
24.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

AzerbaijanArmenia
Electricity - production
23.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
6.951 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
20.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
5.291 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
265 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.424 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
114 million kWh (2016 est.)
275 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
798,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
718,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
7 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
16.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
10.34 billion cu m (2017 est.)
2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
8.042 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
2.095 billion cu m (2017 est.)
2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
7.876 million kW (2016 est.)
4.08 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
84% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
58% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
138,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
100,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
8,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
46,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
5,576 bbl/day (2015 est.)
7,145 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
35.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
5.501 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

AzerbaijanArmenia
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 1,686,316
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16.65 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 462,725
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.27 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 10,835,974
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.99 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,707,557
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122.35 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.az
.am
Internet users
total: 8,017,120
percent of population: 79.8% (July 2018 est.)
total: 1,966,942
percent of population: 64.74% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: after the oil sector, the telecommunications sector contributes the most to the GDP; more competition will allow for falling prices and the strengthening of the 4G TD-LTE standard and the migration to 5G; Azerbaijan has moderate mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration compared to other Asian nations (2020)
domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 107 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan) (2019)
international: country code - 994; the TAE fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing continued modernization and expansion; strong growth in mobile broadband sector and mobile services dominate over fixed-line; rollout of 4G networks and falling prices due to growing competition (2020)
domestic: 15 per 100 fixed-line, 122 per 100 mobile-cellular; reliable fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas (2019)
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic cable through Georgia and Iran to Europe; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 1,890,913
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)
total: 347,448
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; note - all broadcast media is pro-government, and most private broadcast media outlets are owned by entities directly linked to the government

Armenia’s government-run Public Television network operates alongside 100 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; three Russian TV companies are broadcast in Armenia under interstate agreements; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; several major international broadcasters are available, including CNN; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 18 privately owned radio stations

(2019)

Transportation

AzerbaijanArmenia
Railways
total: 2,944 km (2017)
broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
total: 780 km (2014)
broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified) (2014)

note: 726 km operational

Roadways
total: 24,981 km (2013)
total: 7,700 km (2019)
urban: 3,780 km
non-urban: 3,920 km
Pipelines
89 km condensate, 3890 km gas, 2446 km oil (2013)
3838 km gas (high and medium pressure) (2017)
Airports
total: 23 (2020)
total: 7 (2020)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 30 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
total: 10 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 7 (2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 42 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 44
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,279,546 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 44.09 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
4K (2016)
EK (2016)

Military

AzerbaijanArmenia
Military branches
Land Forces, Air Forces, Navy Forces; Ministry of Internal Affairs: State Border Service (includes Coast Guard), Internal Security Troops (2020)
Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces (Armenian Army), Air Force, Air Defense; "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic": Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, which can be served as an officer upon deferment for university studies if enrolled in officer-producing program; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
4% of GDP (2019)
3.6% of GDP (2018)
3.8% of GDP (2017)
3.7% of GDP (2016)
5.5% of GDP (2015)
4.9% of GDP (2019)
4.9% of GDP (2018)
3.8% of GDP (2017)
4.1% of GDP (2016)
4.2% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

AzerbaijanArmenia
Disputes - international

Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government

Illicit drugs
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 351,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2019)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 14,730 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2019)
stateless persons: 961 (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook