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Azerbaijan vs. Armenia

Introduction

AzerbaijanArmenia
BackgroundAzerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan reignited their dispute over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated militarily after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum and approved extending presidential terms from 5 to 7 years in 2016, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.
Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.
Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a trilateral cease-fire between Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Nagorno-Karabakh took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions - approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Geography

AzerbaijanArmenia
LocationSouthwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Geographic coordinates40 30 N, 47 30 E
40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
total: 29,743 sq km
land: 28,203 sq km
water: 1,540 sq km
Area - comparativeabout three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 2,468 km
border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
total: 1,570 km
border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatedry, semiarid steppe
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrainlarge, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 384 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m
mean elevation: 1,792 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 57.6%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1%
forest: 11.3%
other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 59.7%
arable land 15.8%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 42%
forest: 9.1%
other: 31.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land14,277 sq km (2012)
2,740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdroughts
occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment - current issueslocal scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - noteboth the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Population distributionhighest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country

Demographics

AzerbaijanArmenia
Population9,961,396 (July 2017 est.)
3,045,191 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 22.95% (male 1,220,356/female 1,065,514)
15-24 years: 14.84% (male 775,422/female 703,027)
25-54 years: 45.39% (male 2,219,613/female 2,302,356)
55-64 years: 10.17% (male 467,830/female 545,505)
65 years and over: 6.64% (male 253,679/female 408,094) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 18.94% (male 306,322/female 270,388)
15-24 years: 12.89% (male 203,358/female 189,092)
25-54 years: 43.43% (male 640,881/female 681,784)
55-64 years: 13.41% (male 187,178/female 221,071)
65 years and over: 11.33% (male 138,458/female 206,659) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 31.3 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 33 years (2017 est.)
total: 35.1 years
male: 33.3 years
female: 36.9 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.87% (2017 est.)
-0.21% (2017 est.)
Birth rate15.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.8 years
male: 69.7 years
female: 76.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 74.9 years
male: 71.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.89 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.64 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groupsAzerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4%
note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,200 (2016 est.)
3,300 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2016 est.)
<200 (2016 est.)
LanguagesAzerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Education expenditures2.6% of GDP (2014)
2.8% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 55.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 62.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 94.7% of population
rural: 77.8% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.3% of population
rural: 22.2% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 91.6% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 89.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.4% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 78.2% of population
total: 89.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 21.8% of population
total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBAKU (capital) 2.374 million (2015)
YEREVAN (capital) 1,044 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.9% (2013)
2.6% (2016)
Health expenditures6% of GDP (2014)
4.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.8 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
3.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate19.9% (2016)
20.2% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 144,397
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
total number: 19,596
percentage: 4%
note: data represent children ages 7-17 (2007 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.2 years (2014 est.)
24.4 years (2015/16 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 40.2
youth dependency ratio: 32.1
elderly dependency ratio: 8
potential support ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.4
youth dependency ratio: 28.7
elderly dependency ratio: 15.8
potential support ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)

Government

AzerbaijanArmenia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as ""Land of Fire"" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
"
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia
Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Independence30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayRepublic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2007, 2008, last in 2015
note: a 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006); note - RASIZADE was previously prime minister from 20 July 1996 to 4 August 2003
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum will expand presidential terms from 5 to 7 years when it formally takes effect; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the September 2016 referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 84.5%, Jamil HASANLI (National Council of Democratic Forces) 5.5%, other 10%
note: OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Karen KARAPETYAN (since 13 September 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority support in the National Congress; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Congress refuses to accept their program
election results: Serzh SARGSIAN reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN (RPA) 58.6%, Raffi HOVHANNISIAN (Heritage Party) 36.7%, Hrant BAGRATIAN (ANM) 2.2%, other 2.5%
note: constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 will transform the government to a parliamentary system by 2018; for the scheduled February 2018 election, the president will be indirectly elected by parliament and will serve a single 7-year term; following the 2018 election, the prime minister will be elected based on majority support of the National Assembly
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity 1, Unity Party 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Motherland 1, Civil Unity 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, independent 43, invalid 1
description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, currently 105; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in spring of 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPA 49.2%, Tsarukyan Alliance 27.4%, Yelk (Way Out) 7.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 6.6%, other 9%; seats by party - RPA 58, Tsarukyan Alliance 31, Yelk (Way Out) 9, ARF (Dashnak) 7
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court chairman and organized into the criminal chamber and a civil and administrative chamber, each with a chamber chairman and 2 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by National Assembly; judges of both courts can serve until retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 2 Courts of Appeal (for civil cases and for criminal and military cases); district courts; Administrative Court
Political parties and leadersCivil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
"Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]
Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF (""Dashnak"" Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]
Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]
People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]
Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]
Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
Tsarukyan Alliance [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Yelk (Way Out) Alliance [Edmon Marukyan]
"
Political pressure groups and leadersD18 [Ruslan IZZETLI]]
Ireli Public Union or Ireli PU [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
N!DA Civic Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Ulvi HASANLI] (youth movement)
Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in prison since 2013)]
Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
International organization participationADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
chief of mission: Ambassador Grigor HOVHANNISSIAN (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILLS (since 13 February 2015)
embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it
National anthem"name: ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
"
"name: ""Mer Hayrenik"" (Our Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN
note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

AzerbaijanArmenia
Economy - overviewPrior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports, and some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 1% decline in 2017, reinforced by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline has been accompanied by higher inflation and a weakened banking sector in the aftermath of the two sharp currency devaluations since 2015.

Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors, but the government has made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and with the “ASAN” one-stop window concept for government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports, mainly from the agricultural sector, for example with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others.

Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to implement export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the President approved a strategic roadmap that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, and tourism.
Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agro industrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Armenia joined the World Trade Organization in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been largely ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to raise its economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to deteriorations in the global commodity markets and the economic challenges in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support, as most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 7-8% of GDP. Armenia joined the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015, but has expressed interest in expanding its economic ties with the European Union as well, and in March 2017 an EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement was initiated. Armenia’s rising government debt is leading Yerevan to tighten its fiscal policies – the debt almost reached the debt to GDP threshold set by national legislation as of March 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$166.8 billion (2017 est.)
$168.6 billion (2016 est.)
$173.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$27.21 billion (2017 est.)
$26.28 billion (2016 est.)
$26.23 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-1% (2017 est.)
-3.1% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$17,400 (2017 est.)
$17,800 (2016 est.)
$18,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$9,100 (2017 est.)
$8,800 (2016 est.)
$8,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 49.1%
services: 44.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 17.7%
industry: 27.8%
services: 54.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line4.9% (2015 est.)
32% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)12% (2017 est.)
12.4% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2017 est.)
-1.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force5.118 million (2017 est.)
1.507 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 37%
industry: 14.3%
services: 48.9% (2015)
agriculture: 36.3%
industry: 17%
services: 46.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate6% (2017 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
18.9% (2017 est.)
18.8% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index33.7 (2008)
36.5 (2001)
31.5 (2014)
31.5 (2013 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $9.852 billion
expenditures: $10.4 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $2.536 billion
expenditures: $2.91 billion (2017 est.)
Industriespetroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing
Industrial production growth rate-6% (2017 est.)
5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsfruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
fruit (especially grapes and apricots), vegetables; livestock
Exports$15.69 billion (2017 est.)
$13.21 billion (2016 est.)
$2.233 billion (2017 est.)
$1.891 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
unwrought copper, pig iron, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, brandy, cigarettes, energy
Exports - partnersItaly 19.9%, Germany 10.5%, France 8%, Indonesia 5.8%, Czech Republic 5.2% (2016)
Russia 21%, Bulgaria 8.7%, Georgia 8.1%, Canada 7.9%, Germany 7.9%, Iraq 7.8%, China 5.7%, Iran 4.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)
Imports$8.734 billion (2017 est.)
$9.004 billion (2016 est.)
$3.361 billion (2017 est.)
$2.835 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars
Imports - partnersRussia 15.7%, Turkey 12.5%, US 9.6%, Germany 7.5%, Italy 6.7%, Japan 6.2%, China 5.4%, UK 5.4% (2016)
Russia 30.7%, China 11%, Iran 5.1%, Turkey 5%, Germany 5% (2016)
Debt - external$16.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.17 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.987 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesAzerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
1.723 (2017 est.)
1.5957 (2016 est.)
1.5957 (2015 est.)
1.0246 (2014 est.)
0.7844 (2013 est.)
drams (AMD) per US dollar -
487.9 (2017 est.)
480.49 (2016 est.)
480.49 (2015 est.)
477.92 (2014 est.)
415.92 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt48.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
56.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
56.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$8.886 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.242 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.204 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$732 million (2017 est.)
-$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
-$398 million (2017 est.)
-$238 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.21 billion (2016 est.)
$11.04 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$80.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.169 billion (2015 est.)
$4.087 billion (2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$19.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$228 million (2015 est.)
$215 million (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$139.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate15% (10 March 2017)
15% (14 September 2016)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan
6.5% (14 December 2016)
10.5% (10 February 2015)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.56% (31 December 2016 est.)
16% (31 December 2017 est.)
17.36% (31 December 2016 est.)
note: average lending rate on loans up to one year
Stock of domestic credit$13.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.616 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$6.044 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.514 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$7.86 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.521 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.563 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.219 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
23% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13.4%
male: 11.4%
female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
total: 32.5%
male: 28.6%
female: 37.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.9%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 45.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 76.6%
government consumption: 13.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17.9%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 37.3%
imports of goods and services: -47.9% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving25% of GDP (2017 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
17% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

AzerbaijanArmenia
Electricity - production23.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
7.393 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption20.27 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.331 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports265 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.424 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports108 million kWh (2015 est.)
174 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production833,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports721,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves7 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production29.37 billion cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption18.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.73 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports7.32 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports200 million cu m (2015 est.)
2.05 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity7.417 million kW (2015 est.)
4.068 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels84.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
58.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants14.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
31.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
9.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production142,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption101,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
8,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports46,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports6,171 bbl/day (2014 est.)
7,736 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy35 million Mt (2013 est.)
12 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

AzerbaijanArmenia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,700,233
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 531,624
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 10,315,993
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (July 2016 est.)
total: 3,434,567
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with three providers in 2017
domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 104 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan)
international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2017)
general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004, and a second and third provider began operations in 2005 and 2009 respectively
domestic: reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
Internet country code.az
.am
Internet userstotal: 7,720,502
percent of population: 78.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,891,775
percent of population: 62.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)
2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2017)

Transportation

AzerbaijanArmenia
Railwaystotal: 2,944.3 km
broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
total: 780 km
broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified)
note: 726 km operational (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 52,942 km
paved: 26,789 km
unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
total: 7,792 km (2013)
Pipelinescondensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
gas (high and medium pressure) 3,838 km (2017)
Airports37 (2013)
11 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,803,112
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 41,954,600 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix4K (2016)
EK (2016)

Military

AzerbaijanArmenia
Military branchesArmy, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
"Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Force and Air Defense; ""Nagorno-Karabakh Republic"": Nagorno-Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)
"
Military service age and obligation18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.64% of GDP (2016)
5.61% of GDP (2015)
4.56% of GDP (2014)
4.54% of GDP (2013)
4.66% of GDP (2012)
4.09% of GDP (2016)
4.25% of GDP (2015)
3.94% of GDP (2014)
4% of GDP (2013)
3.58% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

AzerbaijanArmenia
Disputes - internationalAzerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government
Illicit drugslimited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 582,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 14,626 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2016)
IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2016)
stateless persons: 512 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook