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Argentina vs. Uruguay

Introduction

ArgentinaUruguay
Background

In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political unrest and conflict between civilian and military factions.

After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

Geography

ArgentinaUruguay
Location
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates
34 00 S, 64 00 W
33 00 S, 56 00 W
Map references
South America
South America
Area
total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
total: 176,215 sq km
land: 175,015 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
about the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land boundaries
total: 11,968 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1263 km, Chile 6691 km, Paraguay 2531 km, Uruguay 541 km
total: 1,591 km
border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1050 km
Coastline
4,989 km
660 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
Climate
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 595 m
lowest point: Laguna del Carbon (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz) -105 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America) 6,962 m
mean elevation: 109 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Natural resources
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land use
agricultural land: 53.9% (2016 est.)
arable land: 13.9% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 39.6% (2016 est.)
forest: 10.7% (2016 est.)
other: 35.4% (2016 est.)
agricultural land: 87.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 76.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 10.2% (2011 est.)
other: 2.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
23,600 sq km (2012)
2,380 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma

seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Environment - current issues
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation (erosion, salinization), desertification, air pollution, and water pollution

note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; heavy metal pollution; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal; deforestation
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Brazil
second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Population distribution
one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated
most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo

Demographics

ArgentinaUruguay
Population
45,479,118 (July 2020 est.)
3,387,605 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 24.02% (male 5,629,188/female 5,294,723)
15-24 years: 15.19% (male 3,539,021/female 3,367,321)
25-54 years: 39.6% (male 9,005,758/female 9,002,931)
55-64 years: 9.07% (male 2,000,536/female 2,122,699)
65 years and over: 12.13% (male 2,331,679/female 3,185,262) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 19.51% (male 336,336/female 324,563)
15-24 years: 15.14% (male 259,904/female 252,945)
25-54 years: 39.86% (male 670,295/female 679,850)
55-64 years: 10.79% (male 172,313/female 193,045)
65 years and over: 14.71% (male 200,516/female 297,838) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 32.4 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 33.6 years (2020 est.)
total: 35.5 years
male: 33.8 years
female: 37.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.86% (2020 est.)
0.27% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
16 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
12.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 93.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.8 years
male: 74.7 years
female: 81.1 years (2020 est.)
total population: 77.9 years
male: 74.8 years
female: 81.2 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.21 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.77 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2019 est.)
0.6% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groups
European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
white 87.7%, black 4.6%, indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)

note: data represent primary ethnic identity

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
140,000 (2019 est.)
14,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,400 (2019 est.)
<200 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Spanish (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 98.9%
female: 99.1% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 98.4%
female: 99% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 18 years
male: 16 years
female: 19 years (2017)
total: 17 years
male: NA
female: NA (2017)
Education expenditures
5.5% of GDP (2017)
4.9% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 92.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 95.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 100% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 98.3% of population (2017 est.)
unimproved: urban: 1.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 1% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
15.154 million BUENOS AIRES (capital), 1.573 million Cordoba, 1.532 million Rosario, 1.173 million Mendoza, 986,000 San Miguel de Tucuman, 884,000 La Plata (2020)
1.752 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
39 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
1.7% (2018/19)
4% (2011)
Health expenditures
9.1% (2017)
9.3% (2017)
Physicians density
3.99 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
5.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
2.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
28.3% (2016)
27.9% (2016)
Demographic profile

Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s, and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.

Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants (often providing needed low-skilled labor) after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. More than 7 million European immigrants are estimated to have arrived in Argentina between 1880 and 1930, when it adopted a more restrictive immigration policy. European immigration also began to wane in the 1930s because of the global depression. The inflow rebounded temporarily following WWII and resumed its decline in the 1950s when Argentina's military dictators tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration increased, however, supplying low-skilled workers escaping economic and political instability in their home countries. As of 2015, immigrants made up almost 5% of Argentina's population, the largest share in South America. Migration from neighboring countries accounted for approximately 80% of Argentina's immigrant population in 2015.

The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by economic decline and repressive military dictatorships. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient. In 2015, Argentina received the highest number of legal migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of its migrant inflow came from Paraguay and Bolivia.

Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.

In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
81.3% (2013)
79.6% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 15-44

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 38.1
elderly dependency ratio: 17.7
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 54.9
youth dependency ratio: 31.5
elderly dependency ratio: 23.4
potential support ratio: 4.3 (2020 est.)

Government

ArgentinaUruguay
Country name
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., "Land beside the Silvery River" or "silvery land," which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or "silvery"
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name translates as "fair winds" in Spanish and derives from the original designation of the settlement that would become the present-day city, "Santa Maria del Buen Aire" (Saint Mary of the Fair Winds)
name: Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name "Montevidi" was originally applied to the hill that overlooked the bay upon which the city of Montevideo was founded; the earliest meaning may have been "[the place where we] saw the hill"
Administrative divisions
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego - Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holiday
Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853
amendments: a declaration of proposed amendments requires two-thirds majority vote by both houses of the National Congress followed by approval by an ad hoc, multi-member constitutional convention; amended many times, last significant amendment in 1994
history: several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967
amendments: initiated by public petition of at least 10% of qualified voters, proposed by agreement of at least two fifths of the General Assembly membership, or by existing "constitutional laws" sanctioned by at least two thirds of the membership in both houses of the Assembly; proposals can also be submitted by senators, representatives, or by the executive power and require the formation of and approval in a national constituent convention; final passage by either method requires approval by absolute majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2004
Legal system
Suffrage
18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch
chief of state: President Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority vote (to win, a candidate must receive at least 45% of votes or 40% of votes and a 10-point lead over the second place candidate; if neither occurs, a second round is held ); the president serves a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
election results: Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (TODOS) 48.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 40.4%, Roberto LAVAGNA (independent) 6.2%, other 5.3%
chief of state: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 27 October 2019 with a runoff election on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in October 2024, and a runoff if needed in November 2024)
election results: Luis Alberto LACALLE POU elected president - results of the first round of presidential elections: percent of vote - Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 40.7%, Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 29.7%, Ernesto TALVI (Colorado Party) 12.8%, and Guido MANINI RIOS (Open Cabildo) 11.3%, other 5.5%; results of the second round: percent of vote - Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 50.6%, Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 49.4%
Legislative branch
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
elections:
Senate - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2021)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - TODOS 13, Cambiemos 8, FCS 2, JSRN 1;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - TODOS 64, Cambiemos 56, CF 3, FCS 3, JSRN 1, other 3
description: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of:
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms)
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Chamber of Senators - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)
Chamber of Representatives - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)
election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by coalition/party - na; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 13, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Open Cabildo 3;

Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - na; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 42, National Party 30, Colorado Party 13, Open Cabildo 11, Independent Party 1, other 2
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75; extensions beyond 75 require renomination by the president and approval by the Senate
subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges serve 10-year terms, with reelection possible after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leaders
Argentina Federal [coalition led by Pablo KOSINER]
Cambiemos [Mauricio MACRI] (coalition of CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR)
Citizen's Unity or UC [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [Elisa CARRIO, Maximiliano FERRARO]
Civic Front for Santiago or FCS [Gerardo ZAMORA]
Everyone's Front (Frente de Todos) or TODOS [Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ]
Federal Consensus or CF [Roberto LAVAGNA, Juan Manuel URTUBEY]
Front for the Renewal of Concord or FRC
Front for Victory or FpV [coalition led by Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER and Agustin ROSSI]
Generation for a National Encounter or GEN [Monica PERALTA]
Justicialist Party or PJ [Miguel Angel PICHETTO]
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Alfredo CORNEJO]
Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA]
Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI, Humberto SCHIAVONI]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI]
Socialist Workers’ Party or PTS [Jose MONTES]
Together We Are Rio Negro or JSRN [Alberto Edgardo WERETILNECK]
We Do For Cordoba (Hacemos Por Cordoba) or HC [Juan SCHIARETTI]
Workers' Party or PO [Jorge ALTAMIRA]
Worker’s Socialist Movement or MST [Alejandro BODDART; Vilma RIPOLL]
numerous provincial parties
Broad Front or FA (Frente Amplio) [Javier MIRANDA] - (a broad governing coalition that includes Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Jorge RODRIGUEZ], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League [Dario PEREZ]
Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (or Let's Go Uruguay), Open Space [Tabare VIERA], and Open Batllism [Ope PASQUET])
Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
National Party or Blanco (including Everyone [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA])
Popular Unity [Gonzalo ABELLA]
Open Cabildo [Guido MANINI RIOS]
International organization participation
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Jorge Martin Arturo ARGUELLO (since 6 February 2020)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Charge d'Affaires Alejandro Ramon RODRIGUEZ COTRO (since 15 July 2020)
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Charles PRADO (since 16 May 2018)
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth S. GEORGE (since 2 September 2019)
telephone: (+598) 1770-2000
embassy: Laura Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun

note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag

National anthem
name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain

name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Economy

ArgentinaUruguay
Economy - overview

Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight.

Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and in 2008 the rapid economic growth of previous years slowed sharply as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. In 2010 the economy rebounded strongly, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits.

In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves.

With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy, lifting capital controls, floating the peso, removing export controls on some commodities, cutting some energy subsidies, and reforming the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors, continued working with the IMF to shore up its finances, and returned to international capital markets in April 2016.

In 2017, Argentina’s economy emerged from recession with GDP growth of nearly 3.0%. The government passed important pension, tax, and fiscal reforms. And after years of international isolation, Argentina took on several international leadership roles, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.

Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor's mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net. 

Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the 2004-08 period. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country avoided a recession and kept growth rates positive, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed markedly in the 2012-16 period as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Reforms in those countries should give Uruguay an economic boost. Growth picked up in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$922.1 billion (2017 est.)
$896.5 billion (2016 est.)
$913.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$78.16 billion (2017 est.)
$76.14 billion (2016 est.)
$74.87 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
-2.03% (2019 est.)
-2.53% (2018 est.)
2.83% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2017 est.)
1.7% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$20,900 (2017 est.)
$20,600 (2016 est.)
$21,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$22,400 (2017 est.)
$21,900 (2016 est.)
$21,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 10.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.1% (2017 est.)
services: 61.1% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 6.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 24.1% (2017 est.)
services: 69.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
25.7% (2017 est.)

note: data are based on private estimates

9.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 31% (2017 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
25.7% (2017 est.)
26.5% (2016 est.)

note: data are derived from private estimates

6.2% (2017 est.)
9.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force
18 million (2017 est.)

note: urban areas only

1.748 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 28.6%
services: 66.1% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 13%
industry: 14%
services: 73% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate
9.84% (2019 est.)
9.18% (2018 est.)
7.6% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
41.7 (2017 est.)
45.8 (2009)
41.6 (2014)
41.9 (2013)
Budget
revenues: 120.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 158.6 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 17.66 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 19.72 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate
2.7% (2017 est.)

note: based on private sector estimates

-3.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Cellulose, beef, soybeans, rice, wheat; dairy products; fish; lumber, tobacco, wine
Exports
$58.45 billion (2017 est.)
$57.78 billion (2016 est.)
$11.41 billion (2017 est.)
$8.387 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products, wool
Exports - partners
Brazil 16.1%, US 7.9%, China 7.5%, Chile 4.4% (2017)
China 19%, Brazil 16.1%, US 5.7%, Argentina 5.4% (2017)
Imports
$63.97 billion (2017 est.)
$53.5 billion (2016 est.)
$8.607 billion (2017 est.)
$8.463 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
Imports - partners
Brazil 26.9%, China 18.5%, US 11.3%, Germany 4.9% (2017)
China 20%, Brazil 19.5%, Argentina 12.6%, US 10.9% (2017)
Debt - external
$214.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$190.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
16.92 (2017 est.)
14.76 (2016 est.)
14.76 (2015 est.)
9.23 (2014 est.)
8.08 (2013 est.)
Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar -
28.77 (2017 est.)
30.16 (2016 est.)
30.16 (2015 est.)
27.52 (2014 est.)
23.25 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
57.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
55% of GDP (2016 est.)
65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
61.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$55.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$38.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$3.997 billion (2019 est.)
-$27.049 billion (2018 est.)
$879 million (2017 est.)
$410 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$637.6 billion (2017 est.)
$59.18 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$76.58 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$72.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$40.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$136.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$175.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$174.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$156.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate

NA

9% (31 December 2012)
8.75% (31 December 2011)

note: Uruguay's central bank uses the benchmark interest rate, rather than the discount rate, to conduct monetary policy; the rates shown here are the benchmark rates

Commercial bank prime lending rate
26.58% (31 December 2017 est.)
31.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.83% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.17% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$219.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$194 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$19.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$62.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.068 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.516 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$62.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.068 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.516 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
18.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
29.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 23.7%
male: 20.8%
female: 27.8% (2018 est.)
total: 25.9%
male: 22.4%
female: 30.7% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 65.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 11.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -13.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 16.7% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 21.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
17.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ArgentinaUruguay
Electricity - production
131.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
121 billion kWh (2016 est.)
10.77 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
55 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.321 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
9.851 billion kWh (2016 est.)
24 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
489,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
16,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
40,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
36,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
2.162 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
336.6 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
40.92 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
49.04 billion cu m (2017 est.)
70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
38.35 million kW (2016 est.)
4.808 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
69% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
669,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
42,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
806,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
53,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
58,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
121,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
9,591 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
203.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
7.554 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

ArgentinaUruguay
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 7,791,464
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.28 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,137,193
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33.66 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 59,008,618
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130.87 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,664,993
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 138.08 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.ar
.uy
Internet users
total: 33,203,320
percent of population: 74.29% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2,300,557
percent of population: 68.28% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: one of the highest broadband penetrations in Latin America, supported by operator investment and govt. programs aimed at expansion; govt. provides 20 million euros for two 5G trials, Chinese company Huawei conducts 5G trials; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas; Argentinians' own multiple SIM cards for work and personal use; even with numerous providers there is a lack of competition for broadband and mobile services; still Argentina is the 3rd largest in the region after Brazil and Mexico (2020)
domestic: 17 per 100 fixed-line, 131 per 100 mobile-cellular; microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network (2019)
international: country code - 54; landing points for the UNISUR, Bicentenario, Atlantis-2, SAm-1, and SAC, Tannat, Malbec and ARBR submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: fully digitalized; one of the highest broadband penetrations in Latin America; high fixed-line and mobile penetrations as well; FttP coverage by 2022; nationwide 3G coverage and LTE networks; limited 5G commercial reach; strong focus on fiber infrastructure with 70% residential fixed-broadband connections and all business connections (2020)
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 138 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 598; landing points for the Unisor, Tannat, and Bicentenario submarine cable system providing direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; Bicentenario 2012 and Tannat 2017 cables helped end-users with Internet bandwidth; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2020)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 8,473,655
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)
total: 977,390
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage
mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2019)

Transportation

ArgentinaUruguay
Railways
total: 36,917 km (2014)
standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified) (2014)
258 km 0.750-m gauge
total: 1,673 km (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km) (2016)
standard gauge: 1,673 km 1.435-m gauge (2016)
Roadways
total: 281,290 km (2017)
paved: 117,616 km (2017)
unpaved: 163,674 km (2017)
total: 77,732 km (2010)
paved: 7,743 km (2010)
unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
Waterways
11,000 km (2012)
1,600 km (2011)
Pipelines
29930 km gas, 41 km liquid petroleum gas, 6248 km oil, 3631 km refined products (2013)
257 km gas, 160 km oil (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
major seaport(s): Montevideo
Merchant marine
total: 192
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 8, oil tanker 30, other 153 (2019)
total: 60
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 5, oil tanker 3, other 51 (2019)
Airports
total: 916 (2020)
total: 133 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 161 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2017)
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
total: 11 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 977 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 484 (2013)
under 914 m: 448 (2013)
total: 122 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 40 (2013)
under 914 m: 79 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 107
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 18,081,937 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 311.57 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
LV (2016)
CX (2016)

Military

ArgentinaUruguay
Military branches
Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic (Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina): Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA); Ministry of Security: Gendarmerie, Prefectura Naval (coast guard) (2020)
Armed Forces of Uruguay (Fuerzas Armadas del Uruguay): National Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Maritime National Prefecture (Coast Guard)), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea); Guardia Nacional Republicana (paramilitary regiment of the National Police) (2020)
Military service age and obligation
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for Navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
0.7% of GDP (2019)
0.7% of GDP (2018)
0.9% of GDP (2017)
0.8% of GDP (2016)
0.9% of GDP (2015)
2% of GDP (2019)
2.1% of GDP (2018)
2% of GDP (2017)
1.9% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

ArgentinaUruguay
Disputes - international

Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia

in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border

Illicit drugs
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs
small-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 213,769 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 19,713 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook