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Angola vs. Namibia

Demographics

AngolaNamibia
Population
30,355,880 (July 2018 est.)

note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million

2,533,224 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.07% (male 7,257,155 /female 7,336,084)
15-24 years: 18.33% (male 2,701,123 /female 2,863,950)
25-54 years: 27.95% (male 4,044,944 /female 4,441,028)
55-64 years: 3.32% (male 466,085 /female 540,452)
65 years and over: 2.32% (male 296,411 /female 408,648) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 36.54% (male 467,392 /female 458,190)
15-24 years: 20.34% (male 257,190 /female 257,984)
25-54 years: 34.74% (male 421,849 /female 458,118)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 50,459 /female 62,478)
65 years and over: 3.93% (male 42,381 /female 57,183) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 15.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years
total: 21.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 20.7 years
female: 22.2 years
Population growth rate
3.49% (2018 est.)
1.91% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
43.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
26.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 65.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 71.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.1 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 36 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 60.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 58.5 years
female: 62.7 years
total population: 64.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 62.7 years
female: 66.2 years
Total fertility rate
6.09 children born/woman (2018 est.)
3.21 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2% (2018 est.)
11.8% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Ovambo 50%, Kavangos 9%, Herero 7%, Damara 7%, European and African ancestry 6.5%, European 6%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana .5%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
330,000 (2018 est.)
200,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
14,000 (2018 est.)
2,700 (2018 est.)
Languages
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6% (2014 est.)

note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Oshiwambo languages 49.7%, Nama/Damara 11%, Kavango languages 10.4%, Afrikaans 9.4% (common language of most of the population), Herero languages 9.2%, Zambezi languages 4.9%, English (official) 2.3%, other African languages 1.5%, other European languages .7%, other 1% (2016 est.)

note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2019)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever (2019)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria (2019)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2019)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2019)
degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
Education expenditures
3.5% of GDP (2010)
3.1% of GDP (2014)
Urbanization
urban population: 66.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 51% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
unimproved: urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 88.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 22.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 51.6% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 54.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 16.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 34.4% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 45.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 83.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
8.045 million LUANDA (capital), 787,000 Lubango (2019)
417,000 WINDHOEK (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
241 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
195 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
19% (2016)
13.2% (2013)
Health expenditures
2.9% (2016)
8.9% (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.2% (2016)
17.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.4 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.5 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

More than a decade after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country's rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, about 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population - about 45% are under the age of 15 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate.

Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.

Planning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.

The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.

Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
13.7% (2015/16)
56.1% (2013)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 97.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 93 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 68.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 62.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook