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Afghanistan vs. Turkmenistan

Demographics

AfghanistanTurkmenistan
Population
36,643,815 (July 2020 est.)
5,528,627 (July 2020 est.)
some sources suggest Turkmenistan's population could be as much as 1 to 2 million people lower than available estimates because of large-scale emigration during the last 10 years
Age structure
0-14 years: 40.62% (male 7,562,703/female 7,321,646)
15-24 years: 21.26% (male 3,960,044/female 3,828,670)
25-54 years: 31.44% (male 5,858,675/female 5,661,887)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 724,597/female 744,910)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 451,852/female 528,831) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 25.44% (male 713,441/female 693,042)
15-24 years: 16.48% (male 458,566/female 452,469)
25-54 years: 44.14% (male 1,214,581/female 1,226,027)
55-64 years: 8.56% (male 221,935/female 251,238)
65 years and over: 5.38% (male 129,332/female 167,996) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 29.2 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.38% (2020 est.)
1.06% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
36.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
18.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 102.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 98.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 104.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 111.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 52.8 years
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.4 years (2020 est.)
total population: 71.3 years
male: 68.2 years
female: 74.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.82 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
<.1% (2019 est.)
NA
Nationality
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
noun: Turkmenistani(s)
adjective: Turkmenistani
Ethnic groups
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) (2015)

note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai

Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
11,000 (2019 est.)
NA
Religions
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
NA
Languages
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 77% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 48%, Uzbek 11%, English 6%, Turkmen 3%, Urdu 3%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi 1% (2017 est.)

note: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43%
male: 55.5%
female: 29.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2018)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2019)
Education expenditures
4.1% of GDP (2017)
3.1% of GDP (2012)
Urbanization
urban population: 26% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 52.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 61.4% of population
total: 70.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 38.6% of population
total: 38.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 43% of population
total: 53.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 57% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
4.222 million KABUL (capital) (2020)
846,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
638 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
19.1% (2018)
3.2% (2015)
Health expenditures
11.8% (2017)
6.9% (2017)
Physicians density
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.5% (2016)
18.6% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
18.9% (2018)
note:  percent of women aged 12-49
50.2% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 88.8
youth dependency ratio: 75.3
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 21 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.2
youth dependency ratio: 47.8
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook