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Afghanistan vs. Tajikistan

Demographics

AfghanistanTajikistan
Population
36,643,815 (July 2020 est.)
8,873,669 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 40.62% (male 7,562,703/female 7,321,646)
15-24 years: 21.26% (male 3,960,044/female 3,828,670)
25-54 years: 31.44% (male 5,858,675/female 5,661,887)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 724,597/female 744,910)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 451,852/female 528,831) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 31.43% (male 1,420,271/female 1,368,445)
15-24 years: 18.13% (male 816,658/female 792,231)
25-54 years: 40.58% (male 1,789,271/female 1,811,566)
55-64 years: 6.23% (male 253,862/female 299,378)
65 years and over: 3.63% (male 132,831/female 189,156) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 25.3 years
male: 24.6 years
female: 26 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.38% (2020 est.)
1.52% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
36.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
21.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 102.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 98.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 104.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 111.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 52.8 years
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.4 years (2020 est.)
total population: 69 years
male: 65.9 years
female: 72.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.82 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.51 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
<.1% (2019 est.)
0.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) (2015)

note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai

Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
11,000 (2019 est.)
14,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
<500 (2019 est.)
Languages
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 77% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 48%, Uzbek 11%, English 6%, Turkmen 3%, Urdu 3%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi 1% (2017 est.)

note: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

note: Russian widely used in government and business

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43%
male: 55.5%
female: 29.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever, malaria
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2018)
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expenditures
4.1% of GDP (2017)
5.2% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 26% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 27.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 61.4% of population
total: 70.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 38.6% of population
total: 38.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 78.6% of population
total: 83.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 21.4% of population
total: 16.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 43% of population
total: 53.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 57% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 2% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
4.222 million KABUL (capital) (2020)
916,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
638 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
19.1% (2018)
7.6% (2017)
Health expenditures
11.8% (2017)
7.2% (2017)
Physicians density
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.5% (2016)
14.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.9 years (2015 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

23.2 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate
18.9% (2018)
note:  percent of women aged 12-49
29.3% (2017)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 88.8
youth dependency ratio: 75.3
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 21 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.9
youth dependency ratio: 62.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.7 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook