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Afghanistan vs. Iran

Demographics

AfghanistanIran
Population
36,643,815 (July 2020 est.)
84,923,314 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 40.62% (male 7,562,703/female 7,321,646)
15-24 years: 21.26% (male 3,960,044/female 3,828,670)
25-54 years: 31.44% (male 5,858,675/female 5,661,887)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 724,597/female 744,910)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 451,852/female 528,831) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 24.11% (male 10,472,844/female 10,000,028)
15-24 years: 13.36% (male 5,806,034/female 5,537,561)
25-54 years: 48.94% (male 21,235,038/female 20,327,384)
55-64 years: 7.72% (male 3,220,074/female 3,337,420)
65 years and over: 5.87% (male 2,316,677/female 2,670,254) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 31.7 years
male: 31.5 years
female: 32 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.38% (2020 est.)
1.1% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
36.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
16.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 102.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 102.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 104.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 111.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 52.8 years
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.4 years (2020 est.)
total population: 74.5 years
male: 73.1 years
female: 76 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.82 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.94 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
<.1% (2019 est.)
<.1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian
Ethnic groups
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) (2015)

note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai

Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Lur, Baloch, Arab, Turkmen and Turkic tribes
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
11,000 (2019 est.)
59,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim (official) 99.4% (Shia 90-95%, Sunni 5-10%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian) 0.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
2,500 (2019 est.)
Languages
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 77% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 48%, Uzbek 11%, English 6%, Turkmen 3%, Urdu 3%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi 1% (2017 est.)

note: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Persian Farsi (official), Azeri and other Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Luri, Balochi, Arabic
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43%
male: 55.5%
female: 29.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.5%
male: 90.4%
female: 80.8% (2016)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever, malaria
degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Iran; sustained community spread means that people have been infected with the virus, but how or where they became infected is not known, and the spread is ongoing; illness with this virus has ranged from mild to severe with fatalities reported; as of 10 November 2020, Iran has reported a total of 673,250 cases of COVID-19 or 8,016 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 450 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2018)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2017)
Education expenditures
4.1% of GDP (2017)
4% of GDP (2018)
Urbanization
urban population: 26% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 75.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 61.4% of population
total: 70.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 38.6% of population
total: 38.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 43% of population
total: 53.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 57% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
4.222 million KABUL (capital) (2020)
9.135 million TEHRAN (capital), 3.152 million Mashhad, 2.086 million Esfahan, 1.628 million Shiraz, 1.581 million Karaj, 1.596 million Tabriz (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
638 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
16 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
19.1% (2018)
4.1% (2011)
Health expenditures
11.8% (2017)
8.7% (2017)
Physicians density
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
1.13 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.5% (2016)
25.8% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
18.9% (2018)
note:  percent of women aged 12-49
77.4% (2010/11)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 88.8
youth dependency ratio: 75.3
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 21 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 36
elderly dependency ratio: 9.6
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook