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Ethiopia Demographics Profile 2019

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108,386,391 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 43.21% (male 23,494,593 /female 23,336,508)
15-24 years: 20.18% (male 10,857,968 /female 11,011,100)
25-54 years: 29.73% (male 15,978,384 /female 16,247,086)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 2,059,129 /female 2,185,814)
65 years and over: 2.97% (male 1,445,547 /female 1,770,262) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 82.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 75.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)
Median age
total: 18 years (2018 est.)
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.2 years
Population growth rate
2.83% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
36 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
urban population: 21.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
4.592 million ADDIS ABABA (capital) (2019)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20 years (2016 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 48.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63 years (2018)
male: 60.5 years
female: 65.5 years
Total fertility rate
4.91 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
40.1% (2018)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
690,000 (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
11,000 (2018 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 27.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 28.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 28% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 72.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 71.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groups
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Demographic profile

Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.

Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.

Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.

Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2012)
Education expenditures
4.7% of GDP (2015)
Maternal mortality rate
401 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
23.6% (2016)
Health expenditures
4% (2016)
Physicians density
0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
4.5% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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