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Ethiopia Demographics Profile

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Population110,871,031 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Nationalitynoun: Ethiopian(s)

adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groupsOromo 34.9%, Amhara (Amara) 27.9%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 7.3%, Sidama 4.1%, Welaita 3%, Gurage 2.8%, Somali (Somalie) 2.7%, Hadiya 2.2%, Afar (Affar) 0.6%, other 12.6% (2016 est.)
LanguagesOromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Kitaaba Addunyaa Waan Qabataamaatiif - Kan Madda Odeeffannoo bu’uraawaatiif baay’ee barbaachisaa ta’e. (Oromo)

???? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? (Amharic)

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ReligionsEthiopian Orthodox 43.8%, Muslim 31.3%, Protestant 22.8%, Catholic 0.7%, traditional 0.6%, other 0.8% (2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.81% (male 21,657,152/female 21,381,628)

15-24 years: 19.47% (male 10,506,144/female 10,542,128)

25-54 years: 32.92% (male 17,720,540/female 17,867,298)

55-64 years: 4.42% (male 2,350,606/female 2,433,319)

65 years and over: 3.38% (male 1,676,478/female 1,977,857) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 76.8

youth dependency ratio: 70.6

elderly dependency ratio: 6.3

potential support ratio: 16 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.8 years

male: 19.6 years

female: 20.1 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.5% (2021 est.)
Birth rate31.03 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionhighest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map
Urbanizationurban population: 22.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population5.006 million ADDIS ABABA (capital) (2021)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.3 years (2019 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
Maternal mortality rate401 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 34.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 39.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 29.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.9 years

male: 65.79 years

female: 70.06 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate4.07 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate37% (2019)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 97% of population

rural: 61.7% of population

total: 68.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 3% of population

rural: 38.3% of population

total: 31.1% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures3.3% (2018)
Physicians density0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2016)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 49.7% of population

rural: 5.7% of population

total: 14.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 50.3% of population

rural: 94.3% of population

total: 85.3% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.9% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS620,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths13,000 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.5% (2016)
Food insecuritywidespread lack of access: due to civil conflict - more than 16 million people were estimated to be severely food insecure in the May-June 2021 period; particular concerns exist for the Tigray Region and neighboring zones of Amhara and Afar regions, where 5.5 million people (about 60 percent of the population) are estimated to face severe food insecurity due to the conflict which started in November 2020 (2021)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight21.1% (2019)
Education expenditures4.7% of GDP (2015)
Demographic profile

Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.

Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.

Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.8%

male: 57.2%

female: 44.4% (2017)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years

male: 8 years

female: 8 years (2012)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

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