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Estonia Geography Profile 2018

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LocationEastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 45,228 sq km
land: 42,388 sq km
water: 2,840 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparativeabout twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 657 km
border countries (2): Latvia 333 km, Russia 324 km
Coastline3,794 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits as agreed to by Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Sweden, and Russia
Climatemaritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrainmarshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 61 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resourcesoil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land useagricultural land: 22.2%
arable land 14.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 7.2%
forest: 52.1%
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land40 sq km (2012)
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
Natural hazardssometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issuesair polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amounts of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen dramatically and the pollution load of wastewater at purification plants has decreased substantially due to improved technology and environmental monitoring; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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