Flag of Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea Demographics Profile

Home > Factbook > Countries > Equatorial Guinea

Population857,008 (July 2021 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)

adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic groupsFang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official), Portuguese-based Creoles spoken in Ano Bom) 32.4% (1994 census)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Religionsnominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, Muslim, Baha'i, animist, indigenous
Age structure0-14 years: 38.73% (male 164,417/female 159,400)

15-24 years: 19.94% (male 84,820/female 81,880)

25-54 years: 32.72% (male 137,632/female 135,973)

55-64 years: 4.69% (male 17,252/female 22,006)

65 years and over: 3.92% (male 13,464/female 19,334) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 64.4

youth dependency ratio: 60.5

elderly dependency ratio: 3.9

potential support ratio: 25.5 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.3 years

male: 19.9 years

female: 20.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.29% (2021 est.)
Birth rate30.09 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate7.16 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributiononly two large cities over 30,000 people (Bata on the mainland, and the capital Malabo on the island of Bioko); small communities are scattered throughout the mainland and the five inhabited islands as shown in this population distribution map
Urbanizationurban population: 73.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Maternal mortality rate301 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 63.25 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 66.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 60.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 66.35 years

male: 64.96 years

female: 67.78 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate4.02 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.6% (2011)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 81.7% of population

rural: 32.1% of population

total: 67.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population

rural: 67.9% of population

total: 32.4% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures3% (2018)
Physicians density0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 81.2% of population

rural: 63.4% of population

total: 76.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population

rural: 36.6% of population

total: 23.8% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate7.3% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS68,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

animal contact diseases: rabies
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2011)
Education expendituresNA
Demographic profile

Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About three-quarters of the population lives below the poverty line.

Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.3%

male: 97.4%

female: 93% (2015)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

Demographics Comparison