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Equatorial Guinea Demographics Profile

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836,178 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 38.73% (male 164,417/female 159,400)
15-24 years: 19.94% (male 84,820/female 81,880)
25-54 years: 32.72% (male 137,632/female 135,973)
55-64 years: 4.69% (male 17,252/female 22,006)
65 years and over: 3.92% (male 13,464/female 19,334) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 64.4
youth dependency ratio: 60.5
elderly dependency ratio: 3.9
potential support ratio: 25.5 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20.3 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.35% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
30.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 73.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 59.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 65.7 years
male: 64.4 years
female: 66.9 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.11 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
12.6% (2011)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
7% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
65,000 (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,800 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 81.7% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 67.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 32.4% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 81.2% of population
rural: 63.4% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population
rural: 36.6% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact diseases: rabies
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic groups
Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, Muslim, Baha'i, animist, indigenous
Demographic profile

Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About three-quarters of the population lives below the poverty line.

Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.

Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official)) 32.4% (1994 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 93% (2015)
Education expenditures
Maternal mortality rate
301 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
5.6% (2011)
Health expenditures
3.1% (2017)
Physicians density
0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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