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Ecuador Government Profile

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Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name
Government type
presidential republic
Capital
name: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Ecuador has two time zones, including the Galapagos Islands (UTC-6)

etymology:
named after the Quitus, a Pre-Columbian indigenous people credited with founding the city


Administrative divisions
24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Constitution
history: many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through a referendum, by public petition of at least 1% of registered voters, or by agreement of at least one-third membership of the National Assembly; passage requires two separate readings a year apart and approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, and approval by absolute majority in a referendum; amendments such as changes to the structure of the state, constraints on personal rights and guarantees, or constitutional amendment procedures are not allowed; amended 2011, 2015, 2018; note - a 2015 constitutional amendment lifting presidential term limits was overturned by a February 2018 referendum
Legal system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
Suffrage
18-65 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
Executive branch
chief of state: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President María Alejandra MUNOZ (since 17 July 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 February 2017 with a runoff on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president in second round; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO Garces (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 February 2017 (next to be held on 7 February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIS 39.1%, CREO-SUMA 20.1%, PSC 15.9%, ID 3.8%, MUPP 2.7%, other 10.7; seats by party - PAIS 74, CREO-SUMA 34, PSC 15, ID 4, MUPP 4, PSP 2, Fuerza Ecuador 1, independent 3; composition - men 85, women 52, percent of women 38%; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch
highest courts: National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges, including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts
Political parties and leaders
Alianza PAIS movement [Lenin Voltaire MORENO Garces]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
Citizen Revolution Movement or MRC [Rafael CORREA]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
Democratic Left or ID
Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA]
Fuerza Ecuador [Abdala BUCARAM] (successor to Roldosist Party)
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Marlon Rene SANTI Gualinga]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Gilmar GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]
Socialist Party [Patricio ZABRANO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
International organization participation
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Francisco Benjamin Esteban CARRION Mena (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. FITZPATRICK (since 18 June 2019)
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Flag description
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice

note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbol(s)
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
National anthem
name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE

note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung


Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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