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Burundi Demographics Profile 2018

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note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 45.57% (male 2,628,767/female 2,596,719)
15-24 years: 19.15% (male 1,095,213/female 1,100,314)
25-54 years: 28.74% (male 1,643,319/female 1,651,679)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 212,074/female 237,324)
65 years and over: 2.63% (male 129,482/female 171,865) (2017 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 89.6
youth dependency ratio: 84.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.3 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate3.25% (2017 est.)
Birth rate41.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 12.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - populationBUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 58.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 60.9 years
male: 59.2 years
female: 62.7 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate5.99 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate31.7% (2012)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS84,000 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,900 (2016 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Nationalitynoun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groupsHutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
ReligionsRoman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
Demographic profileBurundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.
Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
LanguagesKirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official) and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%
note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is widespread (2008 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 433,187
percentage: 19% (2005 est.)
Education expenditures5.4% of GDP (2013)
Maternal mortality rate712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight29.1% (2010)
Health expenditures7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.4% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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