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Brazil Demographics Profile

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211,715,973 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 21.11% (male 22,790,634/female 21,907,018)
15-24 years: 16.06% (male 17,254,363/female 16,750,581)
25-54 years: 43.83% (male 46,070,240/female 46,729,640)
55-64 years: 9.78% (male 9,802,995/female 10,911,140)
65 years and over: 9.21% (male 8,323,344/female 11,176,018) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.5
youth dependency ratio: 29.7
elderly dependency ratio: 13.8
potential support ratio: 7.3 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 33.2 years
male: 32.3 years
female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.67% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
13.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 87.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
22.043 million Sao Paulo, 13.458 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.084 million Belo Horizonte, 4.646 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.137 million Porto Alegre, 4.127 million Recife (2020)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 15.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.7 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 78.4 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.73 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
80.2% (2013)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.5% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
920,000 (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
14,000 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 91.6% of population
total: 98.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 8.4% of population
total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 92.8% of population
rural: 60.1% of population
total: 88.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.2% of population
rural: 39.9% of population
total: 11.7% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Brazil; as of 10 November 2020, Brazil has reported a total of 5,631,181 cases of COVID-19 or 26,492 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 762 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; the Department of Homeland Security has issued instructions requiring US passengers who have been in Brazil to travel through select airports where the US Government has implemented enhanced screening procedures
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groups
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)

note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.2%
male: 93%
female: 93.4% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Education expenditures
6.2% of GDP (2015)
Maternal mortality rate
60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
9.5% (2017)
Physicians density
2.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
22.1% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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