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United States Geography Profile 2016

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LocationOceania
Baker Island: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 1,830 nm southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Howland Island: island in the North Pacific Ocean 1,815 nm southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Jarvis Island: island in the South Pacific Ocean 1,305 nm south of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and Cook Islands
Johnston Atoll: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 717 nm southwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands
Kingman Reef: reef in the North Pacific Ocean 930 nm south of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa
Midway Islands: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 1,260 nm northwest of Honolulu near the end of the Hawaiian Archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo
Palmyra Atoll: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 960 nm south of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa
Geographic coordinatesBaker Island: 0 13 N, 176 28 W
Howland Island: 0 48 N, 176 38 W
Jarvis Island: 0 23 S, 160 01 W
Johnston Atoll: 16 45 N, 169 31 W
Kingman Reef: 6 23 N, 162 25 W
Midway Islands: 28 12 N, 177 22 W
Palmyra Atoll: 5 53 N, 162 05 W
Map referencesOceania
Areatotal - 6,959.41 sq km; emergent land - 22.41 sq km; submerged - 6,937 sq km
Baker Island: total - 129.1 sq km; emergent land - 2.1 sq km; submerged - 127 sq km
Howland Island: total - 138.6 sq km; emergent land - 2.6 sq km; submerged - 136 sq km
Jarvis Island: total - 152 sq km; emergent land - 5 sq km; submerged - 147 sq km
Johnston Atoll: total - 276.6 sq km; emergent land - 2.6 sq km; submerged - 274 sq km
Kingman Reef: total - 1,958.01 sq km; emergent land - 0.01 sq km; submerged - 1,958 sq km
Midway Islands: total - 2,355.2 sq km; emergent land - 6.2 sq km; submerged - 2,349 sq km
Palmyra Atoll: total - 1,949.9 sq km; emergent land - 3.9 sq km; submerged - 1,946 sq km
Area - comparativeBaker Island: about 2.5 times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Howland Island: about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Jarvis Island: about eight times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Johnston Atoll: about 4.5 times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Kingman Reef: a little more than 1.5 times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Midway Islands: about nine times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Palmyra Atoll: about 20 times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundariesnone
CoastlineBaker Island: 4.8 km
Howland Island: 6.4 km
Jarvis Island: 8 km
Johnston Atoll: 34 km
Kingman Reef: 3 km
Midway Islands: 15 km
Palmyra Atoll: 14.5 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
ClimateBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Johnston Atoll and Kingman Reef: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
Midway Islands: subtropical with cool, moist winters (December to February) and warm, dry summers (May to October); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 107 cm of annual rainfall occurs during the winter
Palmyra Atoll: equatorial, hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet, it is extremely wet with between 400-500 cm of rainfall each year
Terrainlow and nearly flat sandy coral islands with narrow fringing reefs that have developed at the top of submerged volcanic mountains, which in most cases rise steeply from the ocean floor
Elevation extremeselevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Baker Island, unnamed location - 8 m; Howland Island, unnamed location - 3 m; Jarvis Island, unnamed location - 7 m; Johnston Atoll, Sand Island - 10 m; Kingman Reef, unnamed location - less than 2 m; Midway Islands, unnamed location - 13 m; Palmyra Atoll, unnamed location - 3 m
Natural resourcesterrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land useagricultural land: 0%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 100% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land264,000 sq km (2012)
Population distributionlarge urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu
Total renewable water resources3,069 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 478.4 cu km/yr (14%/46%/40%)
per capita: 1,583 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazardsBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island poses a maritime hazard
Kingman Reef: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of less than 2 m makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard
Midway Islands, Johnston, and Palmyra Atolls: NA
Environment - current issuesBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands, and Johnston Atoll: no natural freshwater resources
Kingman Reef: none
Midway Islands and Palmyra Atoll: NA
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Geography - noteBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; closed to the public
Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public
Kingman Reef: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public
Midway Islands: a coral atoll managed as a National Wildlife Refuge and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography
Palmyra Atoll: the high rainfall and resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; supports a large undisturbed stand of Pisonia beach forest

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on October 8, 2016

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