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Sudan Geography Profile 2017

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Locationnorth-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
Coastline853 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatehot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 100%
arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2%
forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land18,900 sq km (2012)
Population distributionwith the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notedominated by the Nile and its tributaries

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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