Background: The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won most parliamentary elections and stayed in power either governing alone or in coalition. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party (DP) was elected to office and was re-elected for a second and final term in June 2013. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. Following the 2012 parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties was formed but then dissolved in November 2014 when Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG was voted out of office. A new five-party grand coalition was formed in December 2014 under the leadership of Prime Minister SAIKHANBILEG. The coalition had been expected to last until the next parliamentary elections in the summer of 2016. However, in August 2015, the grand coalition also dissolved, and Prime Minister SAIKHANBILEG took charge of a new governing coalition comprising three parties. Parliamentary elections are scheduled for 29 June 2016.
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Source: CIA World Factbook - This page was last updated on October 8, 2016