Unemployment, male (% of male labor force) (national estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Djibouti 54.60 2002
2 Solomon Islands 31.00 1999
3 Macedonia 27.60 2014
3 Kiribati 27.60 2010
5 Equatorial Guinea 27.40 1983
6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 26.50 2013
7 Namibia 25.80 2013
8 Swaziland 25.70 2007
9 Mauritania 23.90 2008
10 Spain 23.60 2014
10 Greece 23.60 2014
12 Cabo Verde 23.30 1990
13 South Africa 23.10 2014
14 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 22.60 2001
15 Lesotho 22.10 2013
16 Comoros 21.30 1991
17 The Gambia 20.90 2012
18 Serbia 20.80 2013
19 St. Lucia 20.70 2013
20 Mozambique 19.90 2012
21 Albania 19.20 2014
22 Montenegro 17.80 2014
23 Cyprus 17.00 2014
24 Croatia 16.40 2014
25 Puerto Rico 16.20 2012
26 The Bahamas 16.10 2013
27 Libya 15.90 2012
28 Botswana 14.60 2010
29 Gabon 14.40 2010
29 Armenia 14.40 2013
31 Iraq 14.30 2008
32 Georgia 14.00 2014
33 Portugal 13.50 2014
34 Tunisia 13.30 2013
35 Slovak Republic 12.80 2014
35 Ireland 12.80 2014
37 Yemen 12.40 2010
38 Bulgaria 12.30 2014
38 Tajikistan 12.30 2009
40 Lithuania 12.20 2014
41 New Caledonia 12.10 2009
42 Dominica 12.00 2001
43 Italy 11.90 2014
44 Latvia 11.80 2014
45 Barbados 11.70 2013
46 Jamaica 11.20 2013
47 São Tomé and Principe 11.00 2006
48 Ukraine 10.80 2014
49 Jordan 10.60 2013
50 Guyana 10.30 2002
51 France 10.10 2014
52 Egypt 9.90 2013
53 Morocco 9.70 2014
54 Greenland 9.60 2013
54 Grenada 9.60 2001
56 Finland 9.30 2014
57 Algeria 9.20 2014
57 Belize 9.20 2012
59 Belgium 9.00 2014
59 Sudan 9.00 2009
59 Turkey 9.00 2014
62 Slovenia 8.90 2014
63 Iran 8.80 2014
64 Dominican Republic 8.70 2014
65 Lebanon 8.60 2007
66 Poland 8.50 2014
67 Sweden 8.20 2014
68 Costa Rica 8.10 2014
69 Antigua and Barbuda 8.00 2001
70 Senegal 7.90 2011
70 Estonia 7.90 2014
72 Samoa 7.80 2012
72 Zambia 7.80 2012
74 Hungary 7.60 2014
74 Mongolia 7.60 2013
76 Belarus 7.50 2009
77 Côte d'Ivoire 7.40 2012
77 Kyrgyz Republic 7.40 2013
77 Canada 7.40 2014
80 Zimbabwe 7.30 2014
80 Romania 7.30 2014
82 Philippines 7.10 2014
83 Netherlands 7.00 2014
84 El Salvador 6.90 2013
84 Colombia 6.90 2014
86 Cayman Islands 6.70 2013
87 Argentina 6.50 2014
88 Venezuela 6.40 2014
88 Denmark 6.40 2014
88 Afghanistan 6.40 2011
88 Fiji 6.40 2007
88 United Kingdom 6.40 2014
93 United States 6.30 2014
94 Haiti 6.20 1999
95 Malta 6.10 2014
95 Malawi 6.10 2013
97 Indonesia 6.00 2013
97 Australia 6.00 2014
99 Luxembourg 5.90 2014
99 Israel 5.90 2014
101 Austria 5.80 2014
102 Syrian Arab Republic 5.70 2010
103 Russia 5.50 2014
104 Mali 5.40 2010
104 Mauritius 5.40 2014
106 Germany 5.30 2014
106 Chile 5.30 2013
108 Peru 5.20 2014
109 Uruguay 5.10 2014
109 Nicaragua 5.10 2013
109 Czech Republic 5.10 2014
112 New Zealand 5.00 2014
112 Iceland 5.00 2014
114 Tuvalu 4.90 2005
114 Mexico 4.90 2014
116 Ghana 4.80 2013
117 Myanmar 4.70 1990
117 Paraguay 4.70 2014
119 Moldova 4.60 2014
119 Niger 4.60 2007
119 Kazakhstan 4.60 2013
119 Pakistan 4.60 2014
123 Sierra Leone 4.50 2004
123 Dem. Rep. Congo 4.50 2005
125 Switzerland 4.40 2014
126 San Marino 4.30 2014
126 St. Kitts and Nevis 4.30 2001
126 Papua New Guinea 4.30 2000
129 India 4.10 2014
129 Nigeria 4.10 2014
129 Vanuatu 4.10 2009
132 Panama 4.00 2014
132 Brazil 4.00 2014
132 Bangladesh 4.00 2010
132 Azerbaijan 4.00 2013
136 Seychelles 3.80 2011
137 Norway 3.70 2014
137 Palau 3.70 2005
139 Tonga 3.60 2003
139 Japan 3.60 2014
139 Korea 3.60 2014
142 Hong Kong SAR, China 3.50 2014
143 Cameroon 3.40 2010
143 Ecuador 3.40 2013
143 Liberia 3.40 2010
143 Honduras 3.40 2011
147 Nepal 3.20 2013
147 Sri Lanka 3.20 2014
147 Timor-Leste 3.20 2010
150 Cuba 3.10 2013
151 Guatemala 3.00 2013
152 Saudi Arabia 2.90 2014
152 Burkina Faso 2.90 2006
152 Kuwait 2.90 2011
155 Trinidad and Tobago 2.80 2013
155 Rwanda 2.80 2012
157 Singapore 2.70 2013
157 Suriname 2.70 2013
157 Ethiopia 2.70 2013
157 Malaysia 2.70 2014
161 China 2.60 2010
162 Monaco 2.50 2000
162 Guinea 2.50 2012
164 United Arab Emirates 2.40 2009
165 Liechtenstein 2.30 2013
166 Burundi 2.20 2008
166 Bolivia 2.20 2011
168 Tanzania 2.10 2013
169 Bhutan 1.90 2014
169 Vietnam 1.90 2014
169 Macao SAR, China 1.90 2014
172 Uganda 1.40 2013
173 Lao PDR 1.30 2005
173 Brunei 1.30 2011
175 Madagascar 1.10 2012
175 Chad 1.10 1993
177 Benin 0.90 2010
177 Thailand 0.90 2014
179 Bahrain 0.50 2012
180 Cambodia 0.30 2013
181 Qatar 0.10 2013

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Development Relevance: Unemployment and total employment are the broadest indicators of economic activity as reflected by the labor market. The International Labour Organization(ILO) defines the unemployed as members of the economically active population who are without work but available for and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs or who have voluntarily left work. Some unemployment is unavoidable. At any time some workers are temporarily unemployed - between jobs as employers look for the right workers and workers search for better jobs. Such unemployment, often called frictional unemployment, results from the normal operation of labor markets. Changes in unemployment over time may reflect changes in the demand for and supply of labor; they may also reflect changes in reporting practices. Paradoxically, low unemployment rates can disguise substantial poverty in a country, while high unemployment rates can occur in countries with a high level of economic development and low rates of poverty. In countries without unemployment or welfare benefits people eke out a living in vulnerable employment. In countries with well-developed safety nets workers can afford to wait for suitable or desirable jobs. But high and sustained unemployment indicates serious inefficiencies in resource allocation. In many developing countries women work on farms or in other family enterprises without pay and others work in or near their homes, mixing work and family activities during the day. Labor force statistics by gender is important to monitor gender disparities in unemployment patterns. In many developed economies, women have been increasingly acquiring higher education that has led to better-compensated, longer-term careers rather than lower-skilled, shorter-term jobs. However, access to good- paying occupations for women remains unequal in many occupations and countries around the world.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on unemployment are drawn from labor force sample surveys, general household sample surveys, censuses, and official estimates, which are generally based on information from different sources and can be combined in many ways. Administrative records, such as social insurance statistics and employment office statistics, should be treated with care because of their limitations in coverage. Labor force surveys generally yield the most comprehensive data because they include groups not covered in other unemployment statistics, particularly people seeking work for the first time. These surveys generally use a definition of unemployment that follows the international recommendations more closely than that used by other sources and therefore generate statistics that are more comparable internationally. But the age group, geographic coverage, and collection methods could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. The ILO definition of unemployment notwithstanding, reference periods, the criteria for people considered to be seeking work, and the treatment of people temporarily laid off or seeking work for the first time vary across countries. In many developing countries it is especially difficult to measure employment and unemployment in agriculture. The timing of a survey, for example, can maximize the effects of seasonal unemployment in agriculture. And informal sector employment is difficult to quantify where informal activities are not tracked. There may be persons not currently in the labour market who want to work but do not actively "seek" work because they view job opportunities as limited, or because they have restricted labour mobility, or face discrimination, or structural, social or cultural barriers. The exclusion of people who want to work but are not seeking work (often called the "hidden unemployed" or "discouraged workers") is a criterion that will affect the count of both women and men although women may have a higher probability of being excluded from the count of unemployed because they suffer more from social barriers overall that impede them from meeting this criterion. There are situations where the conventional means of seeking work are of limited relevance - for example, in developing economies where the informal economy is rampant and where the labour force is largely self-employed. In such cases, the standard definition of unemployment would greatly undercount the untapped human resources of a country and would give a picture of the labour market that was more positive than reality would warrant.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The standard definition of unemployed persons is those individuals without work, seeking work in a recent past period, and currently available for work. Persons who did not look for work but have an arrangements for a future job are counted as unemployed. It is the labour force or the economically active portion of the population that serves as the base for this indicator, not the total population. Data are based on labor force sample surveys, general household sample surveys, censuses, official estimates, and administrative records.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Data are based on labor force sample surveys, general household sample surveys, censuses, official estimates, and administrative records. The data may differ from the ILO estimates. Relevance to gender indicator: Women tend to be excluded from the unemployment count for various reasons. Women suffer more from discrimination and from structural, social, and cultural barriers that impede them from seeking work. Also, women are often responsible for the care of children and the elderly and for household affairs. They may not be available for work during the short reference period, as they need to make arrangements before starting work. Furthermore, women are considered to be employed when they are working part-time or in temporary jobs, despite the instability of these jobs or their active search for more secure employment.