GNI, PPP (current international $)

Definition: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. For most economies PPP figures are extrapolated from the 2011 International Comparison Program (ICP) benchmark estimates or imputed using a statistical model based on the 2011 ICP. For 47 high- and upper middle-income economies conversion factors are provided by Eurostat and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Description: The map below shows how GNI, PPP (current international $) varies by country. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. The darker the shade, the higher the value. The country with the highest value in the world is China, with a value of 17,966,900,000,000.00. The country with the lowest value in the world is Tuvalu, with a value of 53,480,550.00.

Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.

See also: Country ranking, Time series comparison

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Development Relevance: Because development encompasses many factors - economic, environmental, cultural, educational, and institutional - no single measure gives a complete picture. However, the total earnings of the residents of an economy, measured by its gross national income (GNI), is a good measure of its capacity to provide for the well-being of its people.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Because exchange rates do not always reflect differences in price levels between countries, GNI and GNI per capita estimates are converted into international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates. PPP rates provide a standard measure allowing comparison of real levels of expenditure between countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time. PPP rates are calculated by simultaneously comparing the prices of similar goods and services among a large number of countries. In the most recent round of price surveys conducted by the International Comparison Program (ICP) in 2011, 199 economies participated. The PPP conversion factors come from three sources. For 47 high- and upper middle-income countries conversion factors are provided by Eurostat and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). For the remaining 2011 ICP countries the PPP estimates are extrapolated from the 2011 ICP benchmark results, which account for relative price changes between each economy and the United States. For countries that did not participate in the 2011 ICP round, the PPP estimates are imputed using a statistical model. More information on the results of the 2011 ICP is available at www.worldbank.org/data/icp.

Aggregation method: Gap-filled total

Periodicity: Annual