Consumer price index (2010 = 100)

Definition: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Data are period averages.

Description: The map below shows how Consumer price index (2010 = 100) varies by country. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. The darker the shade, the higher the value. The country with the highest value in the world is Venezuela, with a value of 772.02. The country with the lowest value in the world is Switzerland, with a value of 98.17.

Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.

See also: Country ranking, Time series comparison

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Development Relevance: A general and continuing increase in an economy’s price level is called inflation. The increase in the average prices of goods and services in the economy should be distinguished from a change in the relative prices of individual goods and services. Generally accompanying an overall increase in the price level is a change in the structure of relative prices, but it is only the average increase, not the relative price changes, that constitutes inflation. A commonly used measure of inflation is the consumer price index, which measures the prices of a representative basket of goods and services purchased by a typical household. The consumer price index is usually calculated on the basis of periodic surveys of consumer prices. Other price indices are derived implicitly from indexes of current and constant price series.

Limitations and Exceptions: Consumer price indexes should be interpreted with caution. The definition of a household, the basket of goods, and the geographic (urban or rural) and income group coverage of consumer price surveys can vary widely by country. In addition, weights are derived from household expenditure surveys, which, for budgetary reasons, tend to be conducted infrequently in developing countries, impairing comparability over time. Although useful for measuring consumer price inflation within a country, consumer price indexes are of less value in comparing countries.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Consumer price indexes are constructed explicitly, using surveys of the cost of a defined basket of consumer goods and services.

Base Period: 2010

Periodicity: Annual