CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion)

Definition: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.

Description: The map below shows how CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion) varies by country. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. The darker the shade, the higher the value. The country with the highest value in the world is Bahrain, with a value of 81.20. The country with the lowest value in the world is Paraguay, with a value of 0.00.

Source: IEA Statistics © OECD/IEA 2014 (http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp), subject to https://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions/

See also: Country ranking, Time series comparison

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Development Relevance: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally occurring gas fixed by photosynthesis into organic matter. A byproduct of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, it is also emitted from land use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured, thus having a Global Warming Potential of 1. Emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity. Emission intensities are also used to compare the environmental impact of different fuels or activities. The related terms - emission factor and carbon intensity - are often used interchangeably. Burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has rapidly increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasing the rate of global warming and causing anthropogenic climate change. It is also a major source of ocean acidification since it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. The addition of man-made greenhouse gases to the Atmosphere disturbs the earth's radiative balance. This is leading to an increase in the earth's surface temperature and to related effects on climate, sea level rise and world agriculture. Emissions of CO2 are from burning oil, coal and gas for energy use, burning wood and waste materials, and from industrial processes such as cement production. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have risen by 99%, or on average 2.0% per year, since 1971, and are projected to rise by another 45% by 2030, or by 1.6% per year. It is estimated that emissions in China have risen by 5.7 percent per annum between 1971 and 2006 - the use of coal in China increased levels of CO2 by 4.8 billion tonnes over this period. The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest. Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up the largest share of the greenhouse gases contributing to global warming and climate change. Converting all other greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted in 1997 by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is working towards curbing CO2 emissions globally.

Limitations and Exceptions: As a response to the objectives of the UNFCCC, the IEA Secretariat, together with the IPCC, the OECD and umerous international experts, has helped to develop and refine an internationally-agreed methodology for the calculation and reporting of national greenhouse-gas emissions from fuel combustion. This methodology was published in 1995 in the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. After the initial dissemination of the methodology, revisions were added to several chapters, and published as the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996 IPCC Guidelines). In April 2006, the IPCC approved the 2006 Guidelines at the 25th session of the IPCC in Mauritius. For now, most countries (as well as the IEA Secretariat) are still calculating their inventories using the 1996 IPCC Guidelines.1. Both the 1996 IPCC Guidelines and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines are available from the IPCC Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme (www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp). Since the IPCC methodology for fuel combustion is largely based on energy balances, the IEA estimates for CO2 from fuel combustion have been calculated using the IEA energy balances and the default IPCC methodology. However, other possibly more detailed methodologies may be used by Parties to calculate their inventories. This may lead to different estimates of emissions. The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas. For a more complete idea of how a country influences climate change, gases such as methane and nitrous oxide should be taken into account. This is particularly important in agricultural economies.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Carbon dioxide emissions account for the largest share of greenhouse gases, which are associated with global warming. In 2010 the International Energy Agency (IEA) released data on carbon dioxide emissions by sector for the first time, allowing a more comprehensive understanding of each sector's contribution to total emissions. The sectoral approach yields data on carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] source/sink category 1A) as calculated using the IPCC tier 1 sectoral approach. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity and heat production are the sum of emissions from main activity producers of electricity and heat, unallocated autoproducers, and other energy industries. Main activity producers (formerly known as public supply undertakings) generate electricity or heat for sale to third parties as their primary activity and may be privately or publicly owned. Emissions from own onsite use of fuel in power plants are also included in this category. Unallocated autoproducers are undertakings that generate electricity or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity that supports their primary activity and may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC guidelines these emissions were allocated among industry, transport, and "other" sectors. Emissions from other energy industries are emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction, and other energy-producing industries. Carbon dioxide emissions, largely by-products of energy production and use, account for the largest share of greenhouse gases, which are associated with global warming. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions result primarily from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacturing. In combustion different fossil fuels release different amounts of carbon dioxide for the same level of energy use: oil releases about 50 percent more carbon dioxide than natural gas, and coal releases about twice as much. Cement manufacturing releases about half a metric ton of carbon dioxide for each metric ton of cement produced.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Restricted use: Please contact the International Energy Agency for third-party use of these data.