Foreign direct investment, net outflows (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in an economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. This series shows net outflows of investment from the reporting economy to the rest of the world, and is divided by GDP.

Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, supplemented by data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and official national sources.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Luxembourg 270.39 2014
2 Cayman Islands 249.85 2006
3 Hong Kong SAR, China 48.43 2014
4 Ireland 39.25 2014
5 Mauritius 31.43 2014
6 Singapore 13.21 2014
7 Togo 10.27 2014
8 Cyprus 8.59 2014
9 Kuwait 8.01 2014
10 Hungary 6.49 2014
11 Malaysia 4.79 2014
12 Kiribati 4.72 2014
13 The Bahamas 4.67 2014
14 Chile 4.67 2014
15 Angola 4.37 2013
16 Norway 4.22 2014
17 Portugal 3.91 2014
18 Croatia 3.86 2014
19 Lebanon 3.85 2014
20 Netherlands 3.83 2014
21 Spain 3.33 2014
22 Qatar 3.21 2014
23 Canada 3.16 2014
24 Estonia 3.15 2014
25 Germany 3.07 2014
26 Russia 3.03 2014
27 Tonga 2.64 2014
28 Azerbaijan 2.64 2014
29 Japan 2.60 2014
30 Philippines 2.52 2014
31 Trinidad and Tobago 2.51 2014
32 Georgia 2.46 2014
33 Macao SAR, China 2.46 2014
34 Denmark 2.45 2014
35 Libya 2.28 2014
36 South Africa 2.20 2014
37 Barbados 2.12 2014
38 United States 2.05 2014
39 Oman 2.04 2014
40 Korea 1.99 2014
41 Latvia 1.83 2014
42 Panama 1.69 2014
43 Austria 1.64 2014
44 Bulgaria 1.55 2014
45 Costa Rica 1.26 2014
46 France 1.23 2014
47 Israel 1.20 2014
48 Indonesia 1.17 2014
49 São Tomé and Principe 1.17 2014
50 Lithuania 1.14 2014
51 Poland 1.14 2014
52 Brazil 1.08 2014
53 Switzerland 1.07 2014
54 Thailand 1.05 2014
55 Colombia 1.03 2014
56 Italy 0.95 2014
57 Mongolia 0.90 2014
58 Honduras 0.90 2014
59 Timor-Leste 0.89 2014
60 Turkey 0.88 2014
61 Serbia 0.80 2014
62 El Salvador 0.80 2014
63 China 0.78 2014
64 United Arab Emirates 0.77 2014
65 Kazakhstan 0.76 2014
66 Saudi Arabia 0.72 2014
67 Nicaragua 0.71 2014
68 Botswana 0.70 2014
69 Mexico 0.64 2014
70 Vietnam 0.62 2014
71 Mozambique 0.61 2014
72 Montenegro 0.61 2014
73 Albania 0.57 2014
74 Burkina Faso 0.55 2014
75 Samoa 0.54 2014
76 Zimbabwe 0.51 2014
77 New Zealand 0.50 2014
78 Antigua and Barbuda 0.50 2014
79 India 0.49 2014
80 Gabon 0.47 2014
81 Cabo Verde 0.47 2014
82 Moldova 0.45 2014
83 Ukraine 0.42 2014
84 Slovenia 0.40 2014
85 Morocco 0.40 2014
86 Dominica 0.40 2014
87 Greece 0.38 2014
88 Venezuela 0.38 2012
89 Slovak Republic 0.35 2014
90 Argentina 0.33 2014
91 Benin 0.33 2014
92 Paraguay 0.32 2014
93 St. Kitts and Nevis 0.28 2014
94 Nigeria 0.28 2014
95 Dominican Republic 0.28 2014
96 Niger 0.26 2014
97 Senegal 0.24 2014
98 Jordan 0.23 2014
99 Iceland 0.20 2014
100 Yemen 0.20 2013
101 Cambodia 0.19 2014
102 St. Lucia 0.18 2014
103 Belize 0.16 2014
104 Iran 0.14 2014
105 Armenia 0.14 2014
106 Romania 0.14 2014
107 Iraq 0.11 2014
108 Bangladesh 0.10 2014
109 Belarus 0.10 2014
110 Sri Lanka 0.08 2014
111 Egypt 0.08 2014
112 Mauritania 0.08 2014
113 Tunisia 0.08 2014
114 Mali 0.07 2014
115 Uruguay 0.06 2014
116 Grenada 0.06 2014
117 Solomon Islands 0.06 2014
118 Vanuatu 0.06 2014
119 Congo 0.05 2014
120 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.05 2014
121 Rwanda 0.05 2014
122 Pakistan 0.05 2014
123 Peru 0.05 2014
124 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.03 2014
125 Ecuador 0.03 2014
126 Côte d'Ivoire 0.03 2014
127 Guinea-Bissau 0.02 2014
128 Fiji 0.02 2014
129 Ghana 0.02 2014
130 Lao PDR 0.02 2014
131 Guinea 0.01 2014
132 Swaziland 0.01 2014
133 Syrian Arab Republic 0.01 2007
134 Uganda 0.00 2014
135 Burundi 0.00 2014
136 Central African Republic 0.00 2002
137 Brunei 0.00 2014
137 Equatorial Guinea 0.00 2014
137 Palau 0.00 2014
137 Afghanistan 0.00 2014
137 Comoros 0.00 2014
137 Bolivia 0.00 2014
137 Papua New Guinea 0.00 2014
137 Madagascar 0.00 2014
137 Guyana 0.00 2014
137 Haiti 0.00 2014
147 Kyrgyz Republic 0.00 2014
148 Algeria -0.01 2014
149 Jamaica -0.02 2014
150 Sierra Leone -0.03 2014
151 Australia -0.04 2014
152 Liberia -0.05 2014
153 Malawi -0.11 2014
154 Kenya -0.13 2014
155 Chad -0.14 1999
156 Guatemala -0.20 2014
157 Bahrain -0.23 2014
158 Belgium -0.34 2014
159 Cameroon -0.50 2014
160 Finland -0.68 2014
161 Namibia -0.69 2014
162 Czech Republic -0.83 2014
163 Sweden -1.20 2014
164 Lesotho -1.44 2014
165 Macedonia -1.77 2014
166 Tajikistan -1.87 2013
167 United Kingdom -2.96 2014
168 Zambia -3.61 2014
169 Eritrea -3.95 2000
170 Suriname -4.29 2014
171 Seychelles -5.40 2014
172 Dem. Rep. Congo -6.23 2014
173 Malta -92.21 2013

More rankings: Africa | Asia | Central America & the Caribbean | Europe | Middle East | North America | Oceania | South America | World |

Development Relevance: Private financial flows - equity and debt - account for the bulk of development finance. Equity flows comprise foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio equity. Debt flows are financing raised through bond issuance, bank lending, and supplier credits.

Limitations and Exceptions: FDI data do not give a complete picture of international investment in an economy. Balance of payments data on FDI do not include capital raised locally, an important source of investment financing in some developing countries. In addition, FDI data omit nonequity cross-border transactions such as intra-unit flows of goods and services. The volume of global private financial flows reported by the World Bank generally differs from that reported by other sources because of differences in sources, classification of economies, and method used to adjust and disaggregate reported information. In addition, particularly for debt financing, differences may also reflect how some installments of the transactions and certain offshore issuances are treated. Data on equity flows are shown for all countries for which data are available.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data on equity flows are based on balance of payments data reported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign direct investment (FDI) data are supplemented by the World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and official national sources. The internationally accepted definition of FDI (from the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual [2009]), includes the following components: equity investment, including investment associated with equity that gives rise to control or influence; investment in indirectly influenced or controlled enterprises; investment in fellow enterprises; debt (except selected debt); and reverse investment. The Framework for Direct Investment Relationships provides criteria for determining whether cross-border ownership results in a direct investment relationship, based on control and influence. Distinguished from other kinds of international investment, FDI is made to establish a lasting interest in or effective management control over an enterprise in another country. A lasting interest in an investment enterprise typically involves establishing warehouses, manufacturing facilities, and other permanent or long-term organizations abroad. Direct investments may take the form of greenfield investment, where the investor starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities; joint venture, where the investor enters into a partnership agreement with a company abroad to establish a new enterprise; or merger and acquisition, where the investor acquires an existing enterprise abroad. The IMF suggests that investments should account for at least 10 percent of voting stock to be counted as FDI. In practice many countries set a higher threshold. Many countries fail to report reinvested earnings, and the definition of long-term loans differs among countries. BoP refers to Balance of Payments.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Note: Data starting from 2005 are based on the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6).