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Zimbabwe vs. Zambia

Introduction

ZimbabweZambia
Background"The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.
In 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. MUGABE in 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential poll, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in June 2008, considerable violence against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing ""government of national unity,"" in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned. As a prerequisite to holding the election, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law.
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The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential by election and will complete SATA's term, which expires in August 2016 when new presidential, as well as parliamentary and local elections, will be held.

Geography

ZimbabweZambia
LocationSouthern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates20 00 S, 30 00 E
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 390,757 sq km
land: 386,847 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Indiana; slightly larger than Montana
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 3,229 km
border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrainmostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 961 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
mean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resourcescoal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 42.5%
arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%
forest: 39.5%
other: 18% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,740 sq km (2012)
1,560 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

Demographics

ZimbabweZambia
Population14,546,961
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
15,510,711
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 37.8% (male 2,778,806/female 2,720,033)
15-24 years: 21.29% (male 1,560,833/female 1,536,110)
25-54 years: 33.86% (male 2,578,142/female 2,346,993)
55-64 years: 3.55% (male 188,851/female 327,483)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 194,933/female 314,777) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 46.08% (male 3,590,466/female 3,556,756)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,550,183/female 1,552,706)
25-54 years: 28.65% (male 2,239,661/female 2,204,823)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 211,039/female 240,156)
65 years and over: 2.35% (male 158,827/female 206,094) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.6 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 20.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.2% (2016 est.)
2.94% (2016 est.)
Birth rate31.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58 years
male: 57.3 years
female: 58.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 52.5 years
male: 50.8 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.5 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate14.69% (2015 est.)
12.91% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,425,800 (2015 est.)
1,211,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 82.7% (includes Apostolic 41.8%, Pentecostal 25.2%, other 15.7%), Roman Catholic 6.7%, other Christian 4.6%, traditional religion 0.6%, Muslim 0.4%, other 0.1%, none 4.9% (2015 est.)
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths29,400 (2015 est.)
19,800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesShona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.5%
male: 88.5%
female: 84.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures8.4% of GDP (2014)
1.1% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 76.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 36.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationHARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)
LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11.2% (2014)
14.8% (2014)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.4% (2014)
7.2% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)
19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Demographic profileZimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has caused a slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.
Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners, the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced; a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.
In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.
Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate66.9% (2014)
49% (2013/14)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.4
youth dependency ratio: 75
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 95.4
youth dependency ratio: 89.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)

Government

ZimbabweZambia
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence18 April 1980 (from the UK)
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 18 April (1980)
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitutionprevious 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013; amended many times in 2013; note - significant amendments proposed in early 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Presidents Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA and Phelekezela MPHOKO (both since 12 December 2014)
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); note - following the 31 July 2013 presidential election, the position of prime minister was abolished
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37, MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 196, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 2
description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judge appointment NA; judges serve non-renewable 15-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (three levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
Political parties and leadersFreedom Party [Cosmas MPONDA]
Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Welshman NCUBE]
Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
National People's Party [Joyce MUJURU]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Tendai BITI]
Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]
Zimbabwe People First of ZimPF [Didymus MUTASA]
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph CHILAIZYA (since 19 September 2016
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr. (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P.O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
Flag descriptionseven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
National anthem"name: ""Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"" [Northern Ndebele language] ""Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994
"
"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required

Economy

ZimbabweZambia
Economy - overviewZimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 4% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Growth turned negative in 2016. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.

Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Adoption of a multi-currency basket in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - reduced inflation below 10% per year. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe, though transactions were predominantly carried out in US dollars and South African rand until 2016, when the rand’s devaluation and instability led to near-exclusive use of the US dollar. The government in November 2016 began releasing bond notes, a parallel currency legal only in Zimbabwe which the government claims will have a one-to-one exchange ratio with the US dollar, to ease cash shortages. Bond notes began trading at a discount of up to 10% in the black market by the end of 2016.

Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the IMF in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with international financial institutions. Zimbabwe repaid roughly $108 million in arrears to the IMF in October 2016, but financial observers note that Zimbabwe is unlikely to gain new financing because the government has not disclosed how it plans to repay more than $1.7 billion in arrears to the World Bank and African Development Bank. International financial institutions want Zimbabwe to implement significant fiscal and structural reforms before granting new loans. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of land tenure and titling, the inability to repatriate dividends to investors overseas, and the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act.
Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 and 2016 to just under 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. . Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plans to refinance $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015-16, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit—over 8% in 2015—and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$28.33 billion (2016 est.)
$28.41 billion (2015 est.)
$28.11 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$65.17 billion (2016 est.)
$63.27 billion (2015 est.)
$61.43 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-0.3% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)
3.9% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,700 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,900 (2016 est.)
$3,900 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 12.2%
industry: 28.4%
services: 59.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 61.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line72.3% (2012 est.)
60.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
-2.4% (2015 est.)
20.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force8.098 million (2016 est.)
7.116 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 66%
industry: 10%
services: 24% (1996)
agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
Unemployment rate95% (2009 est.)
80% (2005 est.)
note: figures include unemployment and underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index50.1 (2006)
50.1 (1995)
57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
Budgetrevenues: $3.4 billion
expenditures: $3.9 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.418 billion
expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate-3% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Exports$3.257 billion (2016 est.)
$3.551 billion (2015 est.)
$6.609 billion (2016 est.)
$6.998 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesplatinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partnersChina 26.6%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.4%, South Africa 12.4%, Botswana 12% (2015)
Switzerland 44.2%, China 14.5%, Singapore 7.8%, South Africa 7.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.5% (2015)
Imports$5.738 billion (2016 est.)
$6.016 billion (2015 est.)
$6.752 billion (2016 est.)
$7.711 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 45.4%, China 12.4%, Zambia 6.1%, India 5.3% (2015)
South Africa 31%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, China 8.2%, Mauritius 5.7%, Kenya 4.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$10.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesZimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar -
1 (2016 est.)
NA (2013)
234.25 (2010)

note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
10.8 (2016 est.)
8.6 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
5.1 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt45.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
57.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$326.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$339.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$234 million (2016 est.)
-$1.17 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.164 billion (2016 est.)
-$768 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$14.19 billion (2016 est.)
$20.57 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$3.413 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$252.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$234 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$4.073 billion (13 April 2015 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate7.17% (31 December 2010)
975% (31 December 2007)
9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
Commercial bank prime lending rate20% (31 December 2016 est.)
18% (31 December 2015 est.)
15.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.055 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.013 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.672 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.682 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.112 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: Zimbabwe's central bank no longer publishes data on monetary aggregates, except for bank deposits, which amounted to $2.1 billion in November 2010; the Zimbabwe dollar stopped circulating in early 2009; since then, the US dollar and South African rand have been the most frequently used currencies; there are no reliable estimates of the amount of foreign currency circulating in Zimbabwe
$1.328 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.288 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$101.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$47.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.7%
male: 7.7%
female: 9.8% (2012 est.)
total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 83.7%
government consumption: 25.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 24.4%
imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving7.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
-2.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
27% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ZimbabweZambia
Electricity - production9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
13 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.2 million kW (2014 est.)
2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants36.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption29,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
966 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports29,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)
8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11 million Mt (2013 est.)
3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 8,500,000
electrification - total population: 40%
electrification - urban areas: 80%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)

Telecommunications

ZimbabweZambia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 333,702
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 116,165
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12.757 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (July 2015 est.)
total: 11.558 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: competition has driven rapid expansion of telecommunications, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; continued economic instability and infrastructure limitations, such as reliable power, hinder progress
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; 2 government owned and 2 private cellular providers; 3G and VoIP services are widely available with 4G/LTE service being deployed
international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable (2017)
general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
Internet country code.zw
.zm
Internet userstotal: 2.328 million
percent of population: 16.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.164 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited; analog TV only, no digital service (2017)
state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)

Transportation

ZimbabweZambia
Railwaystotal: 3,427 km
narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2014)
total: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 97,267 km
paved: 18,481 km
unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
total: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
Waterways(some navigation possible on Lake Kariba) (2011)
2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
Pipelinesrefined products 270 km (2013)
oil 771 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Binga, Kariba (Zambezi)
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
Airports196 (2013)
88 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 179
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 104
under 914 m: 72 (2013)
total: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)

Military

ZimbabweZambia
Military branchesZimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)
Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)
national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.61% of GDP (2015)
2.59% of GDP (2014)
2.64% of GDP (2013)
2.57% of GDP (2012)
1.81% of GDP (2011)
1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
1.32% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ZimbabweZambia
Disputes - internationalNamibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Illicit drugstransit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,925 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (political violence, violence in association with the 2008 election, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2015)
stateless persons: 300,000 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 21,338 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook