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Zambia vs. Tanzania

Introduction

ZambiaTanzania
BackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential by election and will complete SATA's term, which expires in August 2016 when new presidential, as well as parliamentary and local elections, will be held.
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.

Geography

ZambiaTanzania
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates15 00 S, 30 00 E
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
1,424 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrainmostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land useagricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,560 sq km (2012)
1,840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Environment - current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

Demographics

ZambiaTanzania
Population15,510,711
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
52,482,726
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.08% (male 3,590,466/female 3,556,756)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,550,183/female 1,552,706)
25-54 years: 28.65% (male 2,239,661/female 2,204,823)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 211,039/female 240,156)
65 years and over: 2.35% (male 158,827/female 206,094) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.94% (2016 est.)
2.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate41.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 52.5 years
male: 50.8 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 62.2 years
male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate12.91% (2015 est.)
4.69% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groupsBemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,211,900 (2015 est.)
1,385,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths19,800 (2015 est.)
35,700 (2015 est.)
LanguagesBembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures1.1% of GDP (2008)
3.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.8% (2014)
13.6% (2011)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.2% (2014)
5.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41%
note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
total number: 2,815,085
percentage: 21%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 and does not include Zanzibar (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileZambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Contraceptive prevalence rate49% (2013/14)
34.4% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 95.4
youth dependency ratio: 89.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 93.8
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)

Government

ZambiaTanzania
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
Independence24 October 1964 (from the UK)
26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 October (1964)
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996, 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (three levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Civic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph CHILAIZYA (since 19 September 2016
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
chief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
Flag descriptiongreen field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
National anthem"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Mungu ibariki Afrika"" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

ZambiaTanzania
Economy - overviewZambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 and 2016 to just under 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. . Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plans to refinance $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015-16, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit—over 8% in 2015—and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-16 averaged 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$65.17 billion (2016 est.)
$63.27 billion (2015 est.)
$61.43 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$150.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140.6 billion (2015 est.)
$131.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,900 (2016 est.)
$3,900 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 9.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 61.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 25.1%
industry: 27.6%
services: 47.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line60.5% (2010 est.)
22.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)20.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force7.116 million (2016 est.)
26.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
agriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
37.6 (2007)
34.6 (2000)
Budgetrevenues: $3.418 billion
expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescopper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate0.2% (2016 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports$6.609 billion (2016 est.)
$6.998 billion (2015 est.)
$5.985 billion (2016 est.)
$5.709 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 44.2%, China 14.5%, Singapore 7.8%, South Africa 7.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.5% (2015)
India 21.8%, China 8.2%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Imports$6.752 billion (2016 est.)
$7.711 billion (2015 est.)
$9.976 billion (2016 est.)
$9.843 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 31%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, China 8.2%, Mauritius 5.7%, Kenya 4.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
China 35.2%, India 13.7%, South Africa 4.5%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesZambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
10.8 (2016 est.)
8.6 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
5.1 (2012 est.)
Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,182.3 (2016 est.)
1,989.7 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)
1,583 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt57.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
Current Account Balance-$1.164 billion (2016 est.)
-$768 million (2015 est.)
-$2.98 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.637 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$20.57 billion (2016 est.)
$46.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
8.25% (31 December 2010)
3.7% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
14.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.672 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.682 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.328 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.288 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.957 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
total: 5.8%
male: 4.5%
female: 7.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving27% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ZambiaTanzania
Electricity - production14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports13 million kWh (2014 est.)
60 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports966 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
10 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
population without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

ZambiaTanzania
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 116,165
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 142,819
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.558 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
total: 39.666 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.zm
.tz
Internet userstotal: 3.164 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.734 million
percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

ZambiaTanzania
Railwaystotal: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
total: 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
total: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
Waterways2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Pipelinesoil 771 km (2013)
gas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
Airports88 (2013)
166 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Military

ZambiaTanzania
Military branchesZambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligationnational registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
1.32% of GDP (2011)
1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
0.92% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaTanzania
Disputes - internationalin 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Illicit drugstransshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 21,338 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 50,324 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016); 244,127 (Burundi) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook