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Zambia vs. Mozambique

Introduction

ZambiaMozambique
BackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential by election and will complete SATA's term, which expires in August 2016 when new presidential, as well as parliamentary and local elections, will be held.
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have continued to engage in a low-level insurgency since 2012.

Geography

ZambiaMozambique
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates15 00 S, 30 00 E
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 4,783 km
border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
2,470 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
tropical to subtropical
Terrainmostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 345 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land useagricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 56.3%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,560 sq km (2012)
1,180 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Demographics

ZambiaMozambique
Population15,510,711
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
25,930,150
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.08% (male 3,590,466/female 3,556,756)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,550,183/female 1,552,706)
25-54 years: 28.65% (male 2,239,661/female 2,204,823)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 211,039/female 240,156)
65 years and over: 2.35% (male 158,827/female 206,094) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.1 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.94% (2016 est.)
2.45% (2016 est.)
Birth rate41.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 52.5 years
male: 50.8 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 53.3 years
male: 52.6 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate12.91% (2015 est.)
10.55% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groupsBemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,211,900 (2015 est.)
1,505,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths19,800 (2015 est.)
39,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesBembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures1.1% of GDP (2008)
6.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
MAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.8% (2014)
15.6% (2011)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.2% (2014)
4.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41%
note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
total number: 1,369,080
percentage: 22% (2008 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
18.9 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileZambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
Contraceptive prevalence rate49% (2013/14)
11.6% (2011)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 95.4
youth dependency ratio: 89.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.8
youth dependency ratio: 88.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5
potential support ratio: 15.3 (2015 est.)

Government

ZambiaMozambique
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence24 October 1964 (from the UK)
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996, 2015 (2016)
previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (three levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUS]
Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph CHILAIZYA (since 19 September 2016
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
Flag descriptiongreen field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
National anthem"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Patria Amada"" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

ZambiaMozambique
Economy - overviewZambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 and 2016 to just under 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. . Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plans to refinance $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015-16, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit—over 8% in 2015—and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $35 billion in 2016. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities.

In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.

A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, the Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries.

Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans originally secured between 2012-2014 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion, which prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. This sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to weak growth in 2016 and forebode weaker economic growth in the next few years.

Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but growth slowed in 2016 to about 3.5% as low commodity prices reduced export earnings. However, many forecasts predict an increase in growth in 2017 as coal exports grow. Two major international consortiums are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$65.17 billion (2016 est.)
$63.27 billion (2015 est.)
$61.43 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$35.01 billion (2016 est.)
$33.79 billion (2015 est.)
$31.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,900 (2016 est.)
$3,900 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 9.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 61.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 25.3%
industry: 19.8%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line60.5% (2010 est.)
46.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)20.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
17.1% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force7.116 million (2016 est.)
13.31 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
22.4% (2014 est.)
17% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
45.6 (2008)
47.3 (2002)
Budgetrevenues: $3.418 billion
expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.554 billion
expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescopper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate0.2% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Exports$6.609 billion (2016 est.)
$6.998 billion (2015 est.)
$3.132 billion (2016 est.)
$3.413 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 44.2%, China 14.5%, Singapore 7.8%, South Africa 7.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.5% (2015)
South Africa 21.2%, China 10.6%, Italy 9.4%, India 8.8%, Belgium 8.2%, Spain 4.6% (2015)
Imports$6.752 billion (2016 est.)
$7.711 billion (2015 est.)
$5.151 billion (2016 est.)
$7.577 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 31%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, China 8.2%, Mauritius 5.7%, Kenya 4.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
South Africa 23.6%, China 19.7%, India 14.2%, Portugal 4% (2015)
Debt - external$9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesZambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
10.8 (2016 est.)
8.6 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
5.1 (2012 est.)
meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
62.07 (2016 est.)
39.983 (2015 est.)
39.983 (2014 est.)
31.367 (2013 est.)
28.38 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt57.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
100.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.164 billion (2016 est.)
-$768 million (2015 est.)
-$4.386 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.833 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$20.57 billion (2016 est.)
$12.05 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
9.5% (17 January 2013)
3.25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
24.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.87% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.672 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.682 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.702 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.565 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.328 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.288 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.961 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.871 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
total: 39.4%
male: 40.2%
female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving27% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
5% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ZambiaMozambique
Electricity - production14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports13 million kWh (2014 est.)
7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports966 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,700,000
electrification - total population: 39%
electrification - urban areas: 66%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)

Telecommunications

ZambiaMozambique
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 116,165
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 89,292
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.558 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.135 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; 3 mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.zm
.mz
Internet userstotal: 3.164 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.277 million
percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

ZambiaMozambique
Railwaystotal: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
total: 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
total: 31,083 km
paved: 7,365 km
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
Waterways2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
Pipelinesoil 771 km (2013)
gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
Airports88 (2013)
98 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)

Military

ZambiaMozambique
Military branchesZambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligationnational registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
1.32% of GDP (2011)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.02% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
0.91% of GDP (2012)
0.91% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaMozambique
Disputes - internationalin 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Illicit drugstransshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 21,338 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
IDPs: 15,000 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook