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West Bank vs. Israel

Introduction

West BankIsrael
Background"From the early 16th century through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank fell under Ottoman rule. Following World War I, the Allied powers (France, UK, Russia) allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine. After World War II, the UN passed a resolution to establish two states within the Mandate, and designated a territory including what is now known as the West Bank as part of the proposed Arab state. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the area was captured by Transjordan (later renamed Jordan). Jordan annexed the West Bank in 1950. In June 1967, Israel captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem during the 1967 Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem, roughly 60% of the West Bank remains under Israeli military control. Israel transferred security and civilian responsibility for a number of Palestinian-populated areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the Palestinian Authority (PA) under a series of agreements signed between 1993 and 1999, the so-called “Oslo Accords.” Negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip stalled after the outbreak of an intifada in mid-2000. In early 2003, the ""Quartet"" of the US, EU, UN, and Russia, presented a roadmap to a final peace settlement by 2005, calling for two states - Israel and a democratic Palestine.
Following Palestinian leader Yassir ARAFAT's death in late 2004 and the subsequent election of Mahmud ABBAS (head of the Fatah political faction) as PA president, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to move the peace process forward. Israel in late 2005 unilaterally withdrew all of its settlers and soldiers, dismantled its military facilities in the Gaza Strip, and redeployed its military from several West Bank settlements, but it continues to control maritime, airspace, and other access. In early 2006, the Islamic Resistance Movement, HAMAS, won the Palestinian Legislative Council election and took control of the PA government. Attempts to form a unity government failed, and violent clashes between Fatah and HAMAS supporters ensued, culminating in HAMAS's violent seizure of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip. Fatah and HAMAS have made several attempts at reconciliation, but the factions have been unable to implement details on governance and security. In an attempt to reenergize peace talks between the Israelis and Palestinians, France in June 2016 hosted a ministerial meeting that included participants from 29 countries, although not Israel or the Palestinians, to lay the groundwork for an envisioned ""multilateral peace conference"" later in the year.
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"Following World War II, Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, and the UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Nonetheless, an Israeli state was declared in 1948, and Israel subsequently defeated the Arab armies in a series of wars that did not end deep tensions between the two sides. (The territories Israel has occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted.) On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, Israel conducted bilateral negotiations with Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement with each. Israel and Palestinian officials on 13 September 1993 signed a Declaration of Principles (also known as the ""Oslo Accords""), enshrining the idea of a two-state solution to their conflict and guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. The parties achieved six additional significant interim agreements between 1994 and 1999 aimed at creating the conditions for a two-state solution, but most were never fully realized. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty.
Progress toward a final status agreement with the Palestinians was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between 2001 and February 2005. Israel in 2005 unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council in 2006 temporarily froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Israel engaged in a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon from July-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip from December 2008-January 2009. In November 2012, Israel engaged in a seven-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip. Direct talks with the Palestinians most recently launched in July 2013 but were suspended in April 2014. The talks represented the fourth concerted effort to resolve final status issues between the sides since they were first discussed at Camp David in 2000. Three months later HAMAS and other militant groups launched rockets into Israel, which led to a 51-day conflict between Israel and militants in Gaza.
"

Geography

West BankIsrael
LocationMiddle East, west of Jordan, east of Israel
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic coordinates32 00 N, 35 15 E
31 30 N, 34 45 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Middle East
Areatotal: 5,860 sq km
land: 5,640 sq km
water: 220 sq km
note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No Man's Land are also included only as a means of depicting the entire area occupied by Israel in 1967
total: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Delaware
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 478 km
border countries (2): Israel 330 km, Jordan 148 km
total: 1,068 km
border countries (6): Egypt 208 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 307 km, Lebanon 81 km, Syria 83 km, West Bank 330 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
273 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrainmostly rugged, dissected upland in west, flat plains descending to Jordan River Valley to the east
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Nabi Yunis 1,020 m
mean elevation: 508 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Natural resourcesarable land
timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land useagricultural land: 43.3%
arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 11%; permanent pasture 24.9%
forest: 1.5%
other: 55.2%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 23.8%
arable land 13.7%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 6.3%
forest: 7.1%
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land240 sq km; note - includes Gaza Strip (2012)
2,250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdroughts
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issuesadequacy of freshwater supply; sewage treatment
limited arable land and natural freshwater resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Geography - notelandlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers; there are about 381 Israeli civilian sites, including about 212 settlements and 134 small outpost communities in the West Bank and 35 sites in East Jerusalem (2014 est.)
Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti); in 2014, there were 423 settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories - 42 settlements in the Golan Heights, 381 sites in the occupied Palestinian territories to include 212 settlements and 134 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip because all were evacuated in 2005 (2014 est.)
Population distributionPalestinian settlements are primarily located in the central to western half of the territory; Jewish colonies are found in pockets throughout, particularly in the northeast, north-central, and around Jerusalem
population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Demographics

West BankIsrael
Population2,697,687 (represents Palestinian population only) (July 2016 est.)
note: approximately 385,900 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank; approximately 201,200 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)
8,174,527 (includes populations of the Golan Heights of Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2016 est.)
note: approximately 21,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2015); approximately 201,000 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)
Age structure0-14 years: 36.91% (male 511,026/female 484,808)
15-24 years: 21.56% (male 297,058/female 284,677)
25-54 years: 33.71% (male 462,201/female 447,200)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 60,360/female 56,936)
65 years and over: 3.46% (male 41,587/female 51,834) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 27.73% (male 1,159,980/female 1,106,946)
15-24 years: 15.52% (male 648,199/female 620,218)
25-54 years: 37.15% (male 1,552,754/female 1,484,059)
55-64 years: 8.51% (male 340,601/female 355,382)
65 years and over: 11.09% (male 405,511/female 500,877) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.8 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.7 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 30.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.86% (2016 est.)
1.53% (2016 est.)
Birth rate26.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
18.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-4.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 16.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75 years
male: 73 years
female: 77.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 82.4 years
male: 80.6 years
female: 84.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.33 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.66 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: NA
adjective: NA
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groupsPalestinian Arab, Jewish, other
Jewish 74.8% (of which Israel-born 75.6%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 16.6%, Africa-born 4.9%, Asia-born 2.9%), non-Jewish 25.2% (mostly Arab) (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsMuslim 80-85% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12-14%, Christian 1-2.5% (mainly Greek Orthodox), other, unaffiliated, unspecified <1% (2012 est.)
Jewish 74.8%, Muslim 17.6%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesArabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
Hebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.5%
male: 98.4%
female: 94.5%
notes: estimates are for Gaza and West Bank (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 14 years
note: data represent Gaza and the West Bank (2015)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures1.3% of GDP
note: includes Gaza Strip (2015)
5.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 75.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
note: data represent Gaza Strip and West Bank
urban population: 92.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 81.5% of population
total: 58.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 18.5% of population
total: 41.6% of population
note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 90.2% of population
total: 92.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 9.8% of population
total: 7.7% of population
note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate45 deaths/100,000 live births
note: data represent Gaza Strip and West Bank (2015 est.)
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Physicians density1.3 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density1.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
3.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 76
youth dependency ratio: 70.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
potential support ratio: 19.2
note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 64.1
youth dependency ratio: 45.7
elderly dependency ratio: 18.4
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)

Government

West BankIsrael
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: West Bank
etymology: name refers to the location of the region - occupied and administered by Jordan after 1948 - that fell on the far side (west bank) of the Jordan River in relation to Jordan proper; the designation was retained following the 1967 Six-Day War and the subsequent changes in government
"conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name ""Israel"" (""He who struggles with God"") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
"

Economy

West BankIsrael
Economy - overviewIsraeli-Palestinian violence in 2015 exacerbated challenges to economic growth in the West Bank - the larger of the two areas comprising the Palestinian Territories. Increased security restrictions and political instability slowed economic activity, and Israel’s four-month withholding of taxes and other fees it collects on the Palestinian Authority’s (PA) behalf caused the PA to delay salary payments to its employees, which in turn had broader effects on business activity and consumer demand.

Longstanding Israeli closure policies continue to disrupt labor and trade flows and the territory’s industrial capacity, limit imports and exports, and constrain private sector development. The PA for the foreseeable future will continue to rely heavily on donor aid for its budgetary needs and economic activity.
"Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.

Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East have insulated the economy from spillover effects.

Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.6% per year during 2014-16. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.

Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of ""tycoons"" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact the well-being of younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2017 with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.

In the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$21.22 billion (2014 est.)
$20.15 billion (2013 est.)
$19.95 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars; includes Gaza Strip
$297 billion (2016 est.)
$289 billion (2015 est.)
$281.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.3% (2014 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
6% (2012 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
2.8% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
3.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,300 (2014 est.)
$4,400 (2013 est.)
$4,600 (2012 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip
$34,800 (2016 est.)
$34,500 (2015 est.)
$34,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.5%
industry: 25.2%
services: 71.4%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2014 est.)
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 69% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line18% (2011 est.)
22%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 28.2%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.2% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2013 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force828,000
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2015 est.)
3.927 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11.5%
industry: 34.4%
services: 54.1%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2013 est.)
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015)
Unemployment rate17.7% (2014 est.)
18.6% (2013 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index34.5 (2009 est.)
38.7 (2007 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip
42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $2.75 billion
expenditures: $4.077 billion
note: includes Palestinian Authority expenditures in the Gaza Strip (2014 est.)
revenues: $80.75 billion
expenditures: $88.4 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessmall-scale manufacturing, quarrying, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs
high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
Industrial production growth rate-1.7%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2015 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsolives, citrus fruit, vegetables; beef, dairy products
citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Exports$937.4 million (2014 est.)
$1.692 billion (2013 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
$51.61 billion (2016 est.)
$56.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesstone, olives, fruit, vegetables, limestone
machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Imports$5.683 billion (2014 est.)
$6.261 billion (2013 est.)
note: data include the Gaza Strip
$57.9 billion (2016 est.)
$59.49 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood, consumer goods, construction materials, petroleum, chemicals
raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Debt - external$1.662 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.467 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: data include the Gaza Strip
$91.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.36 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnew Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.871 (2015 est.)
3.89 (2014 est.)
3.578 (2014 est.)
3.578 (2013 est.)
3.86 (2012 est.)
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.871 (2016 est.)
3.8869 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
3.86 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt24.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
63.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
63.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.149 billion (2014 est.)
-$2.383 billion (2013 est.)
$11.56 billion (2016 est.)
$13.02 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$9.828 billion (2014 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
$311.7 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$3.339 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.187 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.247 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.8% (31 December 2015 est.)
3.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.551 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$233.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$211.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$317.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$265.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$73.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.424 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.273 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$246 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$155.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues28% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-13.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 41%
male: 37%
female: 64.7%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2013 est.)
total: 10.6%
male: 10.1%
female: 11.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 21.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 2.3%
exports of goods and services: 24.5%
imports of goods and services: -60.4%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2014 est.)
household consumption: 55.6%
government consumption: 22.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 29.1%
imports of goods and services: -27% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving7.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
5% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip
22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

West BankIsrael
Electricity - production300 million kWh (2014 est.)
57 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
59.83 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013)
4.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports4.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
285,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
13.95 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
199 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
7.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
7.98 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
2.605 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
80 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity100,000 kW
note: includes Gaza Strip (2014 est.)
16.25 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
97.4% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
309,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
224,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
144,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports18,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
68,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3 million Mt (2013 est.)
62.5 million Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 80,930
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 93%
note: data for West Bank and Gaza Strip combined (2012)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

West BankIsrael
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 406,500 (includes Gaza Strip)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 3.531 million (includes Gaza Strip)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (includes Gaza Strip) (July 2015 est.)
total: 10.57 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: continuing political and economic instability has impeded significant liberalization of the telecommunications industry
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; PALTEL plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Jordan to route domestic mobile calls; the Palestinian JAWWAL company and WATANIYA PALESTINE provide cellular services
international: country code - 970; 1 international switch in Ramallah (2010)
general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ps; note - same as Gaza Strip
.il
Internet userstotal: 2.673 million (includes Gaza Strip)
percent of population: 57.4% (includes Gaza Strip) (July 2015 est.)
total: 6.35 million
percent of population: 78.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe Palestinian Authority operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; about 20 private TV and 40 radio stations; both Jordanian TV and satellite TV are accessible (2013)
state broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2008)

Transportation

West BankIsrael
Roadwaystotal: 4,686 km
paved: 4,686 km
note: includes Gaza Strip (2010)
total: 18,566 km
paved: 18,566 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2011)
Airports2 (2013)
47 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
3 (2013)

Transnational Issues

West BankIsrael
Disputes - international"the current status of the West Bank is subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a ""seam line"" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew from Gaza and four settlements in the northern West Bank in August 2005; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered in Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
"
"West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a ""seam line"" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 792,081 (Palestinian refugees) (2016)
IDPs: 193,000 (includes persons displaced within the Gaza strip due to the intensification of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since June 2014 and other Palestinian IDPs in the Gaza Strip and West Bank who fled as long ago as 1967, although confirmed cumulative data do not go back beyond 2006) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 27,812 (Eritrea) (2016)
stateless persons: 42 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook