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Vietnam vs. Cambodia

Introduction

VietnamCambodia
Background"The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's ""doi moi"" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders maintain tight control on political expression but have demonstrated some modest steps toward better protection of human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests, the vast majority connected to either land-use issues, calls for increased political space, or the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. The small-scale protests in the urban areas are often organized by human rights activists, but many occur in rural areas and involve various ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands, Hmong in the Northwest Highlands, and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region.
"
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a seven-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.
The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.

Geography

VietnamCambodia
LocationSoutheastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates16 10 N, 107 50 E
13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 331,210 sq km
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km
total: 181,035 sq km
land: 176,515 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparativeabout three times the size of Tennesee; slightly larger than New Mexico
one and a half times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundariestotal: 4,616 km
border countries (3): Cambodia 1,158 km, China 1,297 km, Laos 2,161 km
total: 2,530 km
border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km
Coastline3,444 km (excludes islands)
443 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrainlow, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 398 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
mean elevation: 126 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land
oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 34.8%
arable land 20.6%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 2.1%
forest: 45%
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.1%
arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5%
forest: 56.5%
other: 11.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land46,000 sq km (2012)
3,540 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment - current issueslogging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteextending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
Population distributionthough it has one of the highest population densities in the world, the population is not evenly dispersed; clustering appears heaviest along the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin, with the Mekong Delta (in the south) and the Red River Valley (in the north) having the largest concentrations of people
population concentrated in the southeast, particularly in and around the capital of Phnom Penh; further distribution is linked closely to the Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers

Demographics

VietnamCambodia
Population95,261,021 (July 2016 est.)
15,957,223
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.84% (male 11,938,563/female 10,767,261)
15-24 years: 16.69% (male 8,240,861/female 7,658,711)
25-54 years: 45.22% (male 21,690,214/female 21,390,448)
55-64 years: 8.24% (male 3,610,716/female 4,238,569)
65 years and over: 6.01% (male 2,216,485/female 3,509,193) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 31.24% (male 2,515,435/female 2,468,855)
15-24 years: 19.02% (male 1,501,070/female 1,533,500)
25-54 years: 40.18% (male 3,139,851/female 3,271,077)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 342,063/female 524,114)
65 years and over: 4.14% (male 248,454/female 412,804) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.1 years
male: 28.9 years
female: 31.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 24.9 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.95% (2016 est.)
1.56% (2016 est.)
Birth rate15.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.4 years
male: 70.9 years
female: 76.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64.5 years
male: 62 years
female: 67.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.56 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.48% (2015 est.)
0.63% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groupsKinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3%
note: 54 ethnic groups are recognized by the Vietnamese Government (2009 est.)
Khmer 97.6%, Cham 1.2%, Chinese 0.1%, Vietnamese 0.1%, other 0.9% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS255,100 (2015 est.)
74,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,900 (2015 est.)
2,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesVietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 96.3%
female: 92.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77.2%
male: 84.5%
female: 70.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)
Education expenditures5.7% of GDP (2013)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.95% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 97.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 69.1% of population
total: 75.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 30.9% of population
total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 94.4% of population
rural: 69.7% of population
total: 78% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.6% of population
rural: 30.3% of population
total: 22% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 30.5% of population
total: 42.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 69.5% of population
total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationHo Chi Minh City 7.298 million; HANOI (capital) 3.629 million; Can Tho 1.175 million; Haiphong 1.075 million; Da Nang 952,000; Bien Hoa 834,000 (2015)
PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.1% (2013)
23.9% (2014)
Health expenditures7.1% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.5% (2014)
2.9% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate75.7% (2013/14)
56.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 42.5
youth dependency ratio: 32.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.6
potential support ratio: 10.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.6
youth dependency ratio: 49.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2015 est.)

Government

VietnamCambodia
Country name"conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV
etymology: ""Viet nam"" translates as ""Viet south,"" where ""Viet"" is an ethnic self identification dating to a second century B.C. kingdom and ""nam"" refers to its location in relation to other Viet kingdoms
"
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic transliteration)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French transliteration of the native name Kampuchea
Government typecommunist state
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)
provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum
municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
Independence2 September 1945 (from France)
9 November 1953 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 2 September (1945)
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995; amended 2001, 2013 (2016)
previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law
civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tran Dai QUANG (since 2 April 2016); Vice President Dang Thi Ngoc THINH (since 7 April 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 7 April 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Truong Hoa BINH (since 9 April 2016), Vuong Dinh HUE (since 9 April 2016), Vu Duc DAM (since 13 November 2013), Trinh Dinh DUNG (since 9 April 2016), Pham Binh MINH (since 13 November 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by prime minister, appointed by the president, and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 April 2016 (next to be held in spring 2021); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly, confirmed by National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister, confirmed by National Assembly
election results: Tran Dai QUANG (CPV) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.9%; Nguyen Xuan PHUC elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 91.0%
chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), TEA BANH, Gen., HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 475, non-party CPV-approved 19, self-nominated 2; note - 496 candidates were elected
description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125
elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, other 6.7%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a 5-year, renewable term; other judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and labor courts; Central Military Court; People's Special Courts; note - the National Assembly can establish special tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Council (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia (also called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009; court proceeding were ongoing in 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Council judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 17-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appellate Court; provincial and municipal courts; Military Court
Political parties and leadersCommunist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]

note: other parties proscribed
Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [KHEM SOKHA] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])
Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; labor unions; youth groups
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CICA (observer), EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINUSMA, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pham Quang VINH (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general: Houston, San Francisco
consulate: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM BUN RONG (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ted G. OSIUS III (since 16 December 2014)
embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Hanoi
mailing address: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi; 4550 Hanoi Place, Washington, DC 20521-4550
telephone: [84] (4) 3850-5000
FAX: [84] (4) 3850-5010
consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
embassy:
mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Flag descriptionred field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white, three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design
National anthem"name: ""Tien quan ca"" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO
note: adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem
"
"name: ""Nokoreach"" (Royal Kingdom)
lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL
note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom; national colors: red, yellow
Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Vietnam
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

VietnamCambodia
Economy - overviewVietnam is a densely populated developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally planned, highly agrarian economy since 1986 to a more industrial and market based economy, raising incomes substantially. In 2016, Vietnam missed its yearly growth target of 6.7% due to environmental issues – drought and salinization - impacting the agricultural sector and low oil prices affecting the extractive sector. However, annual GDP growth was 6.2%, reflecting strengthening domestic demand and strong manufacturing exports.

Vietnam has a young population, stable political system, commitment to sustainable growth, relatively low inflation, stable currency, strong FDI inflows, and strong manufacturing sector. In addition, the country is committed to continuing its global economic integration. Vietnam joined the WTO in January 2007 and concluded several free trade agreements in 2015-2016, including the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement, the Korean Free Trade Agreement, and the Eurasian Economic Union Free Trade Agreement.

However, to continue its trajectory of strong economic growth, the government acknowledges the need to spark a ?second wave’ of reforms, including reforming state-owned-enterprises, reducing red tape, increasing business sector transparency, reducing the level of non-performing loans in the banking sector, and increasing financial sector transparency. Vietnam has demonstrated a commitment to sustainable growth over the last several years, but a recent slow-down in economic growth could test the government’s resolve.

In 2016, Vietnam cancelled its civilian nuclear energy development program, citing public concerns about safety and the high cost of the program, and is facing growing pressure on energy infrastructure. Overall, the country’s infrastructure fails to meet the needs of an expanding middle class. As the 2017 APEC chair, Vietnam will lead the dialogue on key APEC priorities such as inclusive growth, innovation, food security and climate change.
Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade; GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and at least 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 600,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. Tourism has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching around 4.5 million visitors in 2014. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems.

Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited human resources, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66 million people live on less than $1.20 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure.

The World Bank in 2016 formally reclassified Cambodia as a lower middle-income country as a result of continued rapid economic growth over the past several years. Cambodia’s graduation from a low-income country will reduce its eligibility for foreign assistance and will challenge the government to seek new sources of financing in 2017. The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$594.9 billion (2016 est.)
$560.7 billion (2015 est.)
$525.6 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$58.94 billion (2016 est.)
$55.09 billion (2015 est.)
$51.47 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.1% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,400 (2016 est.)
$6,100 (2015 est.)
$5,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,700 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17%
industry: 39%
services: 44% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 26.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 43.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line11.3% (2012 est.)
17.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 30.2% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.8% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
Labor force54.93 million (2016 est.)
6.643 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 48%
industry: 21%
services: 31% (2012)
agriculture: 48.7%
industry: 19.9%
services: 31.5% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate3.7% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
0.3% (2013 est.)
0.2% (2012 est.)
note: according to official statistics; underemployment is high
Distribution of family income - Gini index37.6 (2008)
36.1 (1998)
37.9 (2008 est.)
41.9 (2004 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $48.04 billion
expenditures: $57.21 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.388 billion
expenditures: $3.562 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate7% (2016 est.)
8.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; pork; poultry; seafood
rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
Exports$169.2 billion (2016 est.)
$162.1 billion (2015 est.)
$8.762 billion (2016 est.)
$8.453 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports - partnersUS 21%, China 13.2%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 5.4%, Germany 4.1% (2015)
US 23%, UK 8.7%, Germany 8.2%, Japan 7.4%, Canada 6.7%, China 5.1%, Vietnam 5%, Thailand 4.9%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Imports$161 billion (2016 est.)
$154.7 billion (2015 est.)
$12.32 billion (2016 est.)
$11.92 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports - partnersChina 34%, South Korea 14.2%, Singapore 6.5%, Japan 6.4%, Hong Kong 5.1%, Thailand 4.5% (2015)
Thailand 28.7%, China 22.2%, Vietnam 16.4%, Hong Kong 6.1%, Singapore 5.7% (2015)
Debt - external$78.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$73.33 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.483 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesdong (VND) per US dollar -
22,347 (2016 est.)
21,909 (2015 est.)
21,909 (2014 est.)
21,189 (2013 est.)
20,859 (2012 est.)
riels (KHR) per US dollar -
4,066 (2016 est.)
4,067.8 (2015 est.)
4,067.8 (2014 est.)
4,037.5 (2013 est.)
4,033 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt54.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
33.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$34.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.477 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.376 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$9.432 billion (2016 est.)
$906 million (2015 est.)
-$1.678 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.886 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$200.5 billion (2016 est.)
$19.37 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$114.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$29.17 billion (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$51.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$40.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate9% (31 December 2012)
15% (31 December 2011)
NA% (31 December 2012)
5.25% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.12% (31 December 2015 est.)
11.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.71% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$285.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$239.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.776 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$74.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.785 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.602 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$300.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$256.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 6%
male: 5.3%
female: 6.8% (2013 est.)
total: 0.5%
male: 0.7%
female: 0.4%
note: according to official statistics (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 65.6%
government consumption: 6.5%
investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
investment in inventories: 3.9%
exports of goods and services: 89.6%
imports of goods and services: -91.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 78.5%
government consumption: 5.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 64.7%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving28.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

VietnamCambodia
Electricity - production135 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption125 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production333,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports163,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves699.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production8.99 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.99 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity39 million kW (2014 est.)
1.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels48.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants50.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production141,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption392,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports27,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports211,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
36,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy142 million Mt (2013 est.)
6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 2,600,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 98% (2013)
population without electricity: 9,900,000
electrification - total population: 34%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Telecommunications

VietnamCambodia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 5.9 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 256,387
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 122 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.851 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system
domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly
international: country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2015)
general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to over 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2015)
Internet country code.vn
.kh
Internet userstotal: 49.741 million
percent of population: 52.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.985 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2008)
mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available; roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)

Transportation

VietnamCambodia
Railwaystotal: 2,600 km
standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge; 253 km mixed gauge
narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 642 km
narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge
note: under restoration (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 195,468 km
paved: 148,338 km
unpaved: 47,130 km (2013)
total: 44,709 km
paved: 3,607 km
unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)
Waterways47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
river port(s): Ho Chi Minh (Mekong)
container port(s) (TEUs): Haiphong (1,018,794), Saigon New Port (3,071,777)
major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
Merchant marinetotal: 579
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 142, cargo 335, chemical tanker 23, container 19, liquefied gas 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 48, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1
registered in other countries: 86 (Cambodia 1, Kiribati 2, Mongolia 33, Panama 43, Taiwan 1, Tuvalu 6) (2010)
total: 544
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)
Airports45 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 38
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

VietnamCambodia
Military branchesPeople's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, includes Vietnam People's Navy (with Naval Infantry), Vietnam People's Air and Air Defense Force, Border Defense Command, Coast Guard) (2013)
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force; the Royal Cambodian Gendarmerie is the military police force responsible for internal security; the National Committee for Maritime Security performs Coast Guard functions and has representation from military and civilian agencies (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for male compulsory and voluntary military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscription typically takes place twice annually and service obligation is 18 months (Army, Air Defense), 2 years (Navy and Air Force); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Force service; males may enroll in military schools at age 17 (2013)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.36% of GDP (2015)
2.29% of GDP (2014)
2.18% of GDP (2013)
2.16% of GDP (2012)
1.98% of GDP (2011)
2% of GDP (2015 est.)
1.66% of GDP (2014)
1.58% of GDP (2013)
1.55% of GDP (2012)
1.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

VietnamCambodia
Disputes - international"southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding ""code of conduct"" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
"
Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
Illicit drugsminor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns; enforces the death penalty for drug trafficking
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders

Source: CIA Factbook