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Venezuela vs. Brazil

Introduction

VenezuelaBrazil
BackgroundVenezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Under Hugo CHAVEZ, president from 1999 to 2013, and his hand-picked successor, President Nicolas MADURO, the executive branch has exercised increasingly authoritarian control over other branches of government. At the same time, democratic institutions have deteriorated, freedoms of expression and the press have been curtailed, and political polarization has grown. The ruling party's economic policies have expanded the state's role in the economy through expropriations of major enterprises, strict currency exchange and price controls that discourage private sector investment and production, and overdependence on the petroleum industry for revenues, among others. Current concerns include: human rights abuses, rampant violent crime, high inflation, and widespread shortages of basic consumer goods, medicine, and medical supplies.
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.

Geography

VenezuelaBrazil
LocationNorthern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 66 00 W
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 912,050 sq km
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparativealmost six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 5,267 km
border countries (3): Brazil 2,137 km, Colombia 2,341 km, Guyana 789 km
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
Coastline2,800 km
7,491 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 15 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
TerrainAndes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 450 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Bolivar 5,007 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land useagricultural land: 24.5%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 20.6%
forest: 52.1%
other: 23.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land10,550 sq km (2012)
54,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssubject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issuessewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteon major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the northern and western highlands along an eastern spur at the northern end of the Andes, an area that includes the capital of Caracas
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brazilia, and Rio de Janeiro

Demographics

VenezuelaBrazil
Population30,912,302 (July 2016 est.)
205,823,665 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.68% (male 4,385,415/female 4,170,160)
15-24 years: 17.27% (male 2,709,359/female 2,629,097)
25-54 years: 40.4% (male 6,182,604/female 6,304,876)
55-64 years: 7.84% (male 1,162,400/female 1,260,451)
65 years and over: 6.82% (male 952,627/female 1,155,313) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 22.79% (male 23,905,185/female 22,994,222)
15-24 years: 16.43% (male 17,146,060/female 16,661,163)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 44,750,568/female 45,489,430)
55-64 years: 8.89% (male 8,637,011/female 9,656,370)
65 years and over: 8.06% (male 7,059,944/female 9,523,712) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28 years
male: 27.3 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.6 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.28% (2016 est.)
0.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.8 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 78.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.8 years
male: 70.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.55% (2015 est.)
0.58% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groupsSpanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS107,300 (2015 est.)
826,700 (2015 est.)
Religionsnominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,300 (2015 est.)
15,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.3%
male: 96.4%
female: 96.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: NA
female: NA (2009)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures6.9% of GDP (2009)
6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 89% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 77.9% of population
total: 93.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 22.1% of population
total: 6.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 69.9% of population
total: 94.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 30.1% of population
total: 5.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCARACAS (capital) 2.916 million; Maracaibo 2.196 million; Valencia 1.734 million; Maracay 1.166 million; Barquisimeto 1.039 million (2015)
Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate95 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.9% (2009)
2.2% (2007)
Health expenditures5.3% of GDP (2014)
8.3% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate24.3% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Demographic profile"Social investment in Venezuela during the CHAVEZ administration reduced poverty from nearly 50% in 1999 to about 27% in 2011, increased school enrollment, substantially decreased infant and child mortality, and improved access to potable water and sanitation through social investment. ""Missions"" dedicated to education, nutrition, healthcare, and sanitation were funded through petroleum revenues. The sustainability of this progress remains questionable, however, as the continuation of these social programs depends on the prosperity of Venezuela's oil industry. In the long-term, education and health care spending may increase economic growth and reduce income inequality, but rising costs and the staffing of new health care jobs with foreigners are slowing development.
While CHAVEZ was in power, more than one million predominantly middle- and upper-class Venezuelans are estimated to have emigrated. The brain drain is attributed to a repressive political system, lack of economic opportunities, steep inflation, a high crime rate, and corruption. Thousands of oil engineers emigrated to Canada, Colombia, and the United States following CHAVEZ's firing of over 20,000 employees of the state-owned petroleum company during a 2002-03 oil strike. Additionally, thousands of Venezuelans of European descent have taken up residence in their ancestral homelands. Nevertheless, Venezuela has attracted hundreds of thousands of immigrants from South America and southern Europe because of its lenient migration policy and the availability of education and health care. Venezuela also has been a fairly accommodating host to more than 200,000 Colombian refugees. However, since 2014, falling oil prices have driven a major economic crisis that has pushed Venezuelans from all walks of life to migrate or to seek asylum abroad to escape severe shortages of food, water, and medicine; soaring inflation; unemployment; and violence. Tens of thousands of Venezuelans have migrated, often illegally, to Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Chile, Guyana, the Dominican Republic, or taken perilous journeys by raft to Aruba and Curacao. Asylum applications increased significantly in the US and Brazil in 2016 and 2017. Although several receiving countries are making efforts to increase immigration restrictions and to deport illegal Venezuelan migrants, Venezuelans continue to migrate to avoid economic collapse at home.
"
Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 42.8
elderly dependency ratio: 9.5
potential support ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.7
youth dependency ratio: 33.3
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)

Government

VenezuelaBrazil
Country name"conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
local short form: Venezuela
etymology: native stilt-houses built on Lake Maracaibo reminded early explorers Alonso de OJEDA and Amerigo VESPUCCI in 1499 of buildings in Venice and so they named the region ""Venezuola,"" which in Italian means ""Little Venice""
"
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government typefederal presidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capitalname: Caracas
geographic coordinates: 10 29 N, 66 52 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 capital district* (distrito capital), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales (Federal Dependencies)**, Distrito Capital (Capital District)*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence5 July 1811 (from Spain)
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 5 July (1811)
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitutionmany previous; latest adopted 15 December 1999, effective 30 December 1999; amended 2009 (2016)
several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Tareck EL AISSAMI (since 4 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Tareck EL AISSAMI (since 4 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 6-year term (no term limits); election last held on 14 April 2013 - a special election held following the death of President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias on 5 March 2013 (next election expected in late 2018 or early 2019 pending official convocation by the country's electoral body)
election results: Nicolas MADURO Moros elected president; percent of vote - Nicolas MADURO Moros (PSUV) 50.6%, Henrique CAPRILES Radonski (PJ) 49.1%, other 0.3%
chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (167 seats; 113 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 51 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 3 seats reserved for indigenous peoples of Venezuela; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 December 2015 (next expected to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - MUD (opposition coalition) 56.3%, PSUV (pro-government) 40.9%, other 2.8%; seats by party - MUD 112, PSUV 55
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Tribunal of Justice (consists of 32 judges organized into 6 divisions - constitutional, political administrative, electoral, civil appeals, criminal appeals, and social (mainly agrarian and labor issues)
judge selection and term of office: judges proposed by the Committee of Judicial Postulation (an independent body of organizations dealing with legal issues and of the organs of citizen power) and appointed by the National Assembly; judges serve non-renewable 12-year terms
subordinate courts: Superior or Appeals Courts (Tribunales Superiores); District Tribunals (Tribunales de Distrito); Courts of First Instance (Tribunales de Primera Instancia); Parish Courts (Tribunales de Parroquia); Justices of the Peace (Justicia de Paz) Network
highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Political parties and leadersA New Time or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]
Brave People's Alliance or ABP [Richard BLANCO]
Christian Democrats or COPEI [Roberto ENRIQUEZ]
Coalition of opposition parties -- The Democratic Unity Table or MUD [Jose Luis CARTAYA]
Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA]
Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS ALLUP]
Fatherland for All or PPT [Rafael UZCATEGUI]
For Social Democracy or PODEMOS [Didalco Antonio BOLIVAR GRATEROL]
Justice First or PJ [Julio BORGES]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Segundo MELENDEZ]
Popular Will or VP [Leopoldo LOPEZ]
Progressive Wave or AP [Henri FALCON]
The Radical Cause or La Causa R [Americo DE GRAZIA]
United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Nicolas MADURO]
Venezuelan Progressive Movement or MPV [Simon CALZADILLA]
Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique Fernando SALAS FEO]
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Political pressure groups and leadersBolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling-party-oriented organized labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-government local communal councils)
Federation of Chambers and Associations of Commerce and Production of Venezuela or FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
other: various civil society groups and human rights organizations
Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participationCaricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) (since July 2014); Charge d'Affaires Carlos Julio RON Mart?nez (since February 2017)
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214
FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lee MCCLENNY (July 2014)
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: [58] (212) 975-6411, 907-8400 (after hours)
FAX: [58] (212) 907-8199
chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band; the flag retains the three equal horizontal bands and three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; yellow is interpreted as standing for the riches of the land, blue for the courage of its people, and red for the blood shed in attaining independence; the seven stars on the original flag represented the seven provinces in Venezuela that united in the war of independence; in 2006, then President Hugo CHAVEZ ordered an eighth star added to the star arc - a decision that sparked much controversy - to conform with the flag proclaimed by Simon Bolivar in 1827 and to represent the historic province of Guayana
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Gloria al bravo pueblo"" (Glory to the Brave People)
lyrics/music: Vicente SALIAS/Juan Jose LANDAETA
note: adopted 1881; lyrics written in 1810, the music some years later; both SALIAS and LANDAETA were executed in 1814 during Venezuela's struggle for independence
"
"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCT jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)troupial (bird); national colors: yellow, blue, red
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

VenezuelaBrazil
Economy - overviewVenezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for almost all export earnings and nearly half of the government’s revenue. In 2016, GDP contracted 10%, inflation hit 720%, people faced widespread shortages of consumer goods, and central bank international reserves dwindled. On the other hand, Venezuela managed to pay down its external debt and narrow its current account deficit. Domestic production and industry continues to severely underperform and the Venezuelan government continues to rely on imports to meet its basic food and consumer goods needs.

Falling oil prices since 2014 have aggravated Venezuela’s economic crisis. Insufficient access to dollars, price controls, and rigid labor regulations have led some US and multinational firms to reduce or shut down their Venezuelan operations. Market uncertainty and state oil company PDVSA’s poor cash flow have slowed investment in the petroleum sector, resulting in a decline in oil production.

Under President Nicolas MADURO, the Venezuelan Government’s response to the economic crisis has been to increase state control over the economy and blame the private sector for the shortages. MADURO has ceded increasing authority for the production and distribution of scarce goods to the military and to local socialist party member committees. The Venezuelan Government has maintained strict currency controls since 2003. On 17 February 2016, the Venezuelan Government announced a change from three official currency exchange mechanisms to only two official rates for the sale of dollars to private-sector firms and individuals, with rates based on the government's import priorities. The official exchange rate used for food and medicine imports was devalued to 10 bolivars per dollar from 6.3 bolivars per dollar. The second rate moved to a managed float. These currency controls present significant obstacles to trade with Venezuela because importers cannot obtain sufficient dollars to purchase goods needed to maintain their operations. Meting out access to the multiple exchange rates has created opportunities for arbitrage and corruption. MADURO has used decree powers to enact legislation to deepen the state’s role as the primary buyer and distributor of imports, further tighten currency controls, cap business profits, and extend price controls.
Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian Real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved—some of the largest in Brazil—has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, the trade bloc adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments to difficult to enact.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$468.6 billion (2016 est.)
$520.7 billion (2015 est.)
$555.2 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.192 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.371 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-10% (2016 est.)
-6.2% (2015 est.)
-3.9% (2014 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,100 (2016 est.)
$17,000 (2015 est.)
$18,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,800 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4%
industry: 36.1%
services: 59.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 22.7%
services: 72%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line19.7% (2015 est.)
"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 32.7% (2006)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)720% (2016 est.)
121.7% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
10.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force14.12 million (April 2016 est.)
101.9 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 7.3%
industry: 21.8%
services: 70.9% (4th quarter, 2011)
agriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
Unemployment rate10.5% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index39 (2011)
49.5 (1998)
49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $95.62 billion
expenditures: $228.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $311.9 billion
expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products, crude oil and petroleum products
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate-8% (2016 est.)
-8.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Exports$28.07 billion (2016 est.)
$38.45 billion (2015 est.)
$189.7 billion (2016 est.)
$191.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, bauxite and aluminum, minerals, chemicals, agricultural products
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Exports - partnersUS 24.5%, China 14.1%, Colombia 10.8%, Netherlands 9.3%, Brazil 6.8%, Cuba 4.2% (2015)
China 18.6%, US 12.7%, Argentina 6.7%, Netherlands 5.3% (2015)
Imports$27.13 billion (2016 est.)
$36.46 billion (2015 est.)
$134.2 billion (2016 est.)
$171.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesagricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports - partnersUS 24%, China 18.3%, Brazil 8.9%, Colombia 5.1%, Mexico 4.4%, Argentina 4% (2015)
China 17.9%, US 15.6%, Germany 6.1%, Argentina 6% (2015)
Debt - external$91.99 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$101.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesbolivars (VEB) per US dollar -
56.57 (2016 est.)
13.72 (2015 est.)
13.72 (2014 est.)
6.284 (2013 est.)
4.29 (2012 est.)
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.39 (2016 est.)
3.3315 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
1.95 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt36.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
49.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, as well as the debt of state-owned oil company PDVSA; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include some debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; some debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$6.942 billion (2016 est.)
-$20.36 billion (2015 est.)
-$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
-$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$333.7 billion (2016 est.)
$1.77 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$33.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$753.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$30.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$295 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$288.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$25.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.143 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.991 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate29.5% (2015)

13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate22.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.4% (31 December 2015 est.)
47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$260.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$331.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$216.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$273.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$360 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$196 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues28.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-39.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 14.7%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
total: 15%
male: 12.3%
female: 18.7% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 16.7%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 5.6%
imports of goods and services: -13.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 12.8%
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving24.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
40% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

VenezuelaBrazil
Electricity - production124 billion kWh (2014 est.)
577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption78 billion kWh (2014 est.)
518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports705 million kWh (2012 est.)
3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports700 million kWh (2013 est.)
34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production2.5 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1.548 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves300 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.617 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production21.88 billion cu m (2014 est.)
20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption23.72 billion cu m (2014 est.)
37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2014 est.)
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.839 billion cu m (2014 est.)
17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity31 million kW (2014 est.)
135 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants55.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production999,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption776,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports390,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports41,530 bbl/day (2013 est.)
519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy188 million Mt (2013 est.)
535 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 99.7%
electrification - urban areas: 99.8%
electrification - rural areas: 98.6% (2013)
population without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)

Telecommunications

VenezuelaBrazil
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 7,780,096
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 27 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 43,677,141
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 29.094 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2015 est.)
total: 257.814 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern and expanding
domestic: 2 domestic satellite systems with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Cuba and the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network (2013)
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2015)
Internet country code.ve
.br
Internet userstotal: 18.113 million
percent of population: 61.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 120.676 million
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment supervises a mixture of state-run and private broadcast media; 13 public service networks, 61 privately owned TV networks, a privately owned news channel with limited national coverage, and a government-backed Pan-American channel; state-run radio network includes roughly 65 news stations and another 30 stations targeted at specific audiences; state-sponsored community broadcasters include 235 radio stations and 44 TV stations; the number of private broadcast radio stations has been declining, but many still remain in operation (2014)
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Transportation

VenezuelaBrazil
Railwaystotal: 447 km
standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (41.4 km electrified) (2014)
total: 28,538 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 96,189 km (2014)
total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Waterways7,100 km (Orinoco River (400 km) and Lake de Maracaibo navigable by oceangoing vessels) (2011)
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 981 km; gas 5,941 km; oil 7,588 km; refined products 1,778 km (2013)
condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): La Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, Punta Cardon
oil terminal(s): Jose terminal
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
Merchant marinetotal: 53
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 12, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 5, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 16
foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 1, Estonia 1, Germany 1, Greece 4, Mexico 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 14 (Panama 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)
Airports444 (2013)
4,093 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 127
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 62
under 914 m: 17 (2013)
total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 317
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 57
914 to 1,523 m: 127
under 914 m: 130 (2013)
total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
13 (2013)

Military

VenezuelaBrazil
Military branchesBolivarian National Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana, FANB): Bolivarian Army (Ejercito Bolivariano, EB), Bolivarian Navy (Armada Bolivariana, AB; includes Naval Infantry, Coast Guard, Naval Aviation), Bolivarian Military Aviation (Aviacion Militar Bolivariana, AMB; includes Air National Guard), Bolivarian National Guard (Guardia Nacional Bolivaria, GNB), Bolivarian Militia (Milicia Bolivariana, NMB) (2016)
Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Military service age and obligationall citizens of military service age (18-60 years old) are obligated to register for military service, though mandatory recruitment is forbidden; the minimum service obligation is 12 months (2016)
"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1% of GDP (2015)
1.16% of GDP (2014)
1.43% of GDP (2013)
1.3% of GDP (2012)
0.75% of GDP (2011)
1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

VenezuelaBrazil
Disputes - internationalclaims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela's shared border region; US, France, and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan Economic Exclusion Zone/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest Venezuela's full effect claim
uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Illicit drugssmall-scale illicit producer of opium and coca for the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 171,920 (Colombia) (2016)
stateless persons: 4 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook