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Uzbekistan vs. Turkmenistan

Introduction

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Background"Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of ""white gold"" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country is striving to reduce its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
"
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times, Merv (located in present-day Mary province) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. The Government of Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects and has attempted to diversify its gas export routes beyond Russia's pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. In 2016, Russia and Iran halted their purchase of gas from Turkmenistan making China the only buyer of Turkmen gas. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president. He was reelected in 2012 and again in 2017 with over 97% of the vote in both instances, in elections widely regarded as undemocratic.

Geography

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
LocationCentral Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 64 00 E
40 00 N, 60 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 469,930 sq km
water: 18,170 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
slightly more than three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
total: 4,158 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 804 km, Iran 1,148 km, Kazakhstan 413 km, Uzbekistan 1,793 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
0 km (landlocked); note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claimsnone (doubly landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
subtropical desert
Terrainmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
mean elevation: 230 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m (Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya, the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Land useagricultural land: 62.6%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 72%
arable land 4.1%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 67.8%
forest: 8.8%
other: 19.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land42,150 sq km (2012)
19,950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
NA
Environment - current issuesshrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notealong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
the most densly populated areas are the southern, eastern, and northeastern oases; approximately 50% of the population lives in and around the capital of Ashgabat

Demographics

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Population29,473,614 (July 2016 est.)
5,291,317 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.22% (male 3,658,960/female 3,480,659)
15-24 years: 19.22% (male 2,874,982/female 2,790,128)
25-54 years: 43.95% (male 6,444,288/female 6,510,741)
55-64 years: 7.54% (male 1,049,876/female 1,171,369)
65 years and over: 5.06% (male 637,408/female 855,203) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.95% (male 695,752/female 677,166)
15-24 years: 19.04% (male 506,856/female 500,647)
25-54 years: 42.86% (male 1,125,058/female 1,142,870)
55-64 years: 7.59% (male 189,464/female 212,330)
65 years and over: 4.56% (male 105,140/female 136,034) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.1 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.5 years
male: 27 years
female: 28 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.93% (2016 est.)
1.13% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.8 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 77 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.1 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 73.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.08 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.15% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen
Ethnic groupsUzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS32,700 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsMuslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,600 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Education expendituresNA
3% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 50% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.94% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 53.7% of population
total: 71.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 46.3% of population
total: 28.9% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationTASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
ASHGABAT (capital) 746,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
42 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.4% (2006)
9.2% (2006)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
2.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.29 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.3% (2014)
18.8% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.4 years (2013 est.)
24.6 years (2006 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 7
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 41.7
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.3 (2015 est.)

Government

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""uz"" (self) and ""bek"" (master) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) to give the meaning ""Land of the Free""
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so Turkmenistan literally means the ""Land of the Turkmen [people]""
"
Government typepresidential republic; highly authoritarian
presidential republic; authoritarian
Capitalname: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
geographic coordinates: 37 57 N, 58 23 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat) and 1 independent city*: Ahal Welayaty (Anew), Ashgabat*, Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 September (1991)
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: adopted 18 May 1992
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership or absolute majority approval in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2008; note - in mid-2014, the president established a Constitutional Commission to initiate a process for developing constitutional reforms (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system with Islamic law influences
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016; prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2024)
election results: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW reelected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 97.7%, other candidates 2.3%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
description: unicameral National Assembly or Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected from single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 December 2013 (next to be held in December 2018), although interim elections are held on an ad hoc basis to fill vacant sets
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 47, Organization of Trade and Unions of Turkmenistan 33, Women's Union of Turkmenistan 16, Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 14, Magtymguly Youth Organization 8, independents 7; note - all of these parties support President BERDIMUHAMIDOW
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Turkmenistan (consists of the court president and 21 associate judges and organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
subordinate courts: High Commercial Court; appellate courts; provincial, district, and city courts; military courts
Political parties and leadersEcological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Agrarian Party of Turkmenistan or APT [Ovezmyrat ENERMYRADOV]
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Kasymguly BABAYEW]
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs or PIE [Orazmammet MAMMEDOW]
note: a law authorizing the registration of political parties went into effect in January 2012; unofficial, small opposition movements exist abroad
Political pressure groups and leadersno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
none
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, CIS (associate member, has not ratified the 1993 CIS charter although it participates in meetings and held the chairmanship of the CIS in 2012), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOW (since 14 February 2001)
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
chief of mission: Ambassador Allan MUSTARD (since 20 January 2015)
embassy: No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street), Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 744000
mailing address: 7070 Ashgabat Place, Washington, DC 20521-7070
telephone: [993] (12) 94-00-45
FAX: [993] (12) 94-26-14
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life
note: the flag of Turkmenistan is the most intricate of all national flags
National anthem"name: ""O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Garassyz, Bitarap Turkmenistanyn"" (Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem)
lyrics/music: collective/Veli MUKHATOV
note: adopted 1997, lyrics revised in 2008, following the death of President Saparmurat NYYAZOW, to eliminate references to him
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
Akhal-Teke horse; national colors: green, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkmenistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Economy - overviewUzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.

Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.

In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and significant natural gas and oil resources. The two largest crops are cotton, most of which is produced for export, and wheat, which is domestically consumed. Although agriculture accounts for roughly 9% of GDP, it continues to employ nearly half of the country's workforce. Hydrocarbon exports (mainly natural gas) make up 25% of Turkmenistan’s GDP, the bulk of which is natural gas going to China. Ashgabat has explored two initiatives to bring gas to new markets: a trans-Caspian pipeline that would carry gas to Europe and the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. Both face major financing and security hurdles and are unlikely to be completed soon.

Turkmenistan’s autocratic governments under presidents NIYAZOW (1991-2006) and BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 2007) have made little progress improving the business climate, privatizing state-owned industries, and combatting corruption, limiting economic development outside the energy sector. High energy prices in the mid-2000s allowed the government to undertake extensive development and social spending, including providing heavy utility subsidies.

Low energy prices since mid-2014 are hampering Turkmenistan’s economic growth and reducing government revenues. The government has cut subsidies in several areas, and wage arrears have increased. In January 2014, the Central Bank of Turkmenistan devalued the manat by 19%, and downward pressure on the currency continues. There is a widening spread between the official exchange rate (3.49 TMM per US dollar) and the black market exchange rate (approximately 7 TMM per US dollar). Currency depreciation, corruption, isolationist policies, and limited spending on public services has resulted in a stagnate economy that is nearing crisis. Turkmenistan claims substantial foreign currency reserves, but non-transparent data limit international institutions’ ability to verify this information.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$202.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
$176.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$94.72 billion (2016 est.)
$89.95 billion (2015 est.)
$84.46 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
5.3% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
10.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,500 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$5,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$17,300 (2016 est.)
$16,700 (2015 est.)
$15,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.6%
industry: 32.9%
services: 49.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 47.7%
services: 39.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)11.5% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
5.5% (2016 est.)
6.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.1 million (2017 est.)
2.305 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 48.2%
industry: 14%
services: 37.8% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate5.2% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2015 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
11% (2014 est.)
10.6% (2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)
40.8 (1998)
Budgetrevenues: $13.84 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $5.523 billion
expenditures: $5.818 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
cotton, grain, melons; livestock
Exports$12.57 billion (2016 est.)
$12.87 billion (2015 est.)
$8.756 billion (2016 est.)
$10.38 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesenergy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, textiles, cotton fiber
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 25.9%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015)
China 68.7%, Turkey 4.9% (2015)
Imports$12.11 billion (2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (2015 est.)
$7.467 billion (2016 est.)
$8.198 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 11.9%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015)
Turkey 25.1%, Russia 12.3%, China 11%, UAE 9.1%, Kazakhstan 5.2%, Germany 4.6%, Iran 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$15.75 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$502.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$454.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesUzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
2,963.7 (2016 est.)
2,569.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
1,890.1 (2012 est.)
Turkmen manat (TMM) per US dollar -
4.25 (2016 est.)
3.5 (2015 est.)
3.5 (2014 est.)
2.85 (2013 est.)
2.85 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$907 million (2016 est.)
-$356 million (2015 est.)
-$7.605 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.054 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$67.22 billion (2016 est.)
$36.57 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$3.061 billion (2013 est.)
$3.117 billion (2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
$NA
Central bank discount rate9% (2016)
9% (2015)
5% (31 December 2014)
5% (31 December 2013)
Stock of domestic credit$12.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of narrow money$7.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.162 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.255 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.632 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 50%
government consumption: 10.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 33.9%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
31% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
-22.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Electricity - production59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
22.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production60,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
243,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports27,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
70,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
7.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production61.74 billion cu m (2014 est.)
76 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption47.04 billion cu m (2014 est.)
30.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
45.79 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity13 million kW (2014 est.)
4.275 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
173,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption64,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
145,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4,367 bbl/day (2013 est.)
47,830 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy109 million Mt (2013 est.)
67 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,507,711
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 648,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 21.783 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.842 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 2 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid 2016
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
general assessment: telecommunications network is gradually improving
domestic: Turkmentelekom, in cooperation with foreign partners, has installed high-speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; combined fixed-line and mobile teledensity is about 160 per 100 persons; Russia's Mobile Telesystems, the only foreign mobile-cellular service provider in Turkmenistan, had its operating license suspended in December 2010 but was able to resume operations in September 2012; Turkmenistan's first telecommunication satellite was launched in 2015 and is expected to greatly improve connectivity in the country
international: country code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2015)
Internet country code.uz
.tm
Internet userstotal: 12.498 million
percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 785,000
percent of population: 15% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
broadcast media is government controlled and censored; 7 state-owned TV and 4 state-owned radio networks; satellite dishes and programming provide an alternative to the state-run media; officials sometimes limit access to satellite TV by removing satellite dishes (2007)

Transportation

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Railwaystotal: 4,304 km
broad gauge: 4,304 km 1.520-m gauge (1,354 km electrified) (2016)
total: 2,980 km
broad gauge: 2,980 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
total: 58,592 km
paved: 47,577 km
unpaved: 11,015 km (2002)
Waterways1,100 km (2012)
1,300 km (Amu Darya and Kara Kum canal are important inland waterways) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
gas 7,500 km; oil 1,501 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Turkmenbasy
Airports53 (2013)
26 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (2013)

Military

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Military branchesArmed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Turkmen Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
18-27 years of age for compulsory male military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 20 years of age for voluntary service; males may enroll in military schools from age 15 (2015)

Transnational Issues

UzbekistanTurkmenistan
Disputes - internationalprolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Illicit drugstransit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
stateless persons: 5,744 (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)
current situation: Turkmenistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Turkmen who migrate abroad are forced to work in the textile, agriculture, construction, and domestic service industries, while women and girls may also be sex trafficked; in 2014, men surpassed women as victims; Turkey and Russia are primary trafficking destinations, followed by the Middle East, South and Central Asia, and other parts of Europe; Turkmen also experience forced labor domestically in the informal construction industry; participation in the cotton harvest is still mandatory for some public sector employees
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Turkmenistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Turkmenistan was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government made some progress in its law enforcement efforts in 2014, convicting more offenders than in 2013; authorities did not make adequate efforts to identify and protect victims and did not fund international organizations or NGOs that offered protective services; some victims were punished for crimes as a result of being trafficked (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook