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Uzbekistan vs. Kyrgyzstan

Introduction

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Background"Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of ""white gold"" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country is striving to reduce its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
"
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Former Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV overwhelmingly won the presidential election in the summer of 2005. Over the next few years, he manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for the presidency. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won reelection in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual flight to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011, marking the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in independent Kyrgyzstan's history. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
Under the 2010 Constitution, ATAMBAEV is limited to one term, which will end in 2017. Constitutional amendments passed in a referendum in December 2016 include language that transfers some presidential powers to the prime minister. Disagreement over the constitutional amendments compelled ATAMBAEV’s Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan to dissolve the ruling coalition and create a new majority coalition in the Jogorku Kenesh that excluded opposition parties critical of the amendments.

Geography

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
LocationCentral Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 64 00 E
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundariestotal: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
total: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (doubly landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrainmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
mean elevation: 2,988 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land useagricultural land: 62.6%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 55.4%
arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
forest: 5.1%
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land42,150 sq km (2012)
10,233 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
NA
Environment - current issuesshrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notealong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Demographics

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Population29,473,614 (July 2016 est.)
5,727,553 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.22% (male 3,658,960/female 3,480,659)
15-24 years: 19.22% (male 2,874,982/female 2,790,128)
25-54 years: 43.95% (male 6,444,288/female 6,510,741)
55-64 years: 7.54% (male 1,049,876/female 1,171,369)
65 years and over: 5.06% (male 637,408/female 855,203) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 30.12% (male 883,875/female 841,362)
15-24 years: 17.47% (male 508,656/female 492,046)
25-54 years: 39.68% (male 1,112,777/female 1,159,967)
55-64 years: 7.59% (male 189,684/female 245,202)
65 years and over: 5.13% (male 112,494/female 181,490) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.1 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 26.2 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 27.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.93% (2016 est.)
1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
22.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.8 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 77 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.7 years
male: 66.5 years
female: 75.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.64 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.15% (2015 est.)
0.22% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groupsUzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Kyrgyz 70.9%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 7.7%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS32,700 (2015 est.)
8,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,600 (2015 est.)
200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expendituresNA
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 35.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 93.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
BISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.4% (2006)
2.8% (2014)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
6.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.3% (2014)
13.3% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.4 years (2013 est.)
23.3 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 7
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.3
youth dependency ratio: 48.8
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)

Government

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""uz"" (self) and ""bek"" (master) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) to give the meaning ""Land of the Free""
"
"conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""kyrg"" (forty) and ""-yz"" (tribes) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) creating the meaning ""Land of the Forty Tribes""; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
"
Government typepresidential republic; highly authoritarian
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 September (1991)
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - the current constitution prohibits any change until 2020
amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two-thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016; prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 13 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president
election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV (SDPK) 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (All Kyrgyzstan) 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV (Homeland) 14.3%, other 7.8%; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 115 to 0
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.8%, other 14%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
Political parties and leadersEcological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Omurbek BABANOV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Isa OMURKULOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Bir Duino [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822-23
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
chief of mission: Ambassador Sheila GWALTNEY (14 October 2015)
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
"red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a ""tunduk"" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
"
National anthem"name: ""O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni"" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
gyrfalcon; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Economy - overviewUzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.

Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.

In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to over one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis, declining oil prices, and regional economic headwinds have damaged economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 4-5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. While joining the EAEU has increased Kyrgyz labor mobility within member states, large scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow in developing since accession. Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians alike often contend that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states, particularly Kazakhstan, are negatively impacting sectors of the Kyrgyz economy that enjoy a comparative advantage, such as meat and dairy production. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to conform to Union standards, though many local entrepreneurs have criticized this process as disjointed and incomplete. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring and diversifying domestic industries, and attracting foreign aid and investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$202.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
$176.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.01 billion (2016 est.)
$20.55 billion (2015 est.)
$19.87 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,500 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$5,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,500 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.6%
industry: 32.9%
services: 49.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 17.9%
industry: 25.9%
services: 56.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2016 est.)
32.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)11.5% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
2.9% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.1 million (2017 est.)
2.778 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate5.2% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2015 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
8% (2013 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)
33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $13.84 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.04 billion
expenditures: $2.354 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
0% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Exports$12.57 billion (2016 est.)
$12.87 billion (2015 est.)
$1.453 billion (2016 est.)
$1.61 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesenergy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 25.9%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015)
Switzerland 26.1%, Uzbekistan 22.6%, Kazakhstan 20.8%, UAE 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Afghanistan 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2015)
Imports$12.11 billion (2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (2015 est.)
$3.146 billion (2016 est.)
$3.648 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 11.9%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015)
China 56.6%, Russia 17.2%, Kazakhstan 10% (2015)
Debt - external$15.75 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.728 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesUzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
2,963.7 (2016 est.)
2,569.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
1,890.1 (2012 est.)
soms (KGS) per US dollar -
69.08 (2016 est.)
64.462 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)
47.01 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt11% of GDP (2015 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.838 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$907 million (2016 est.)
-$356 million (2015 est.)
-$615 million (2016 est.)
-$740 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$67.22 billion (2016 est.)
$5.794 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$4.897 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$331.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$331.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate9% (2016)
9% (2015)
5% (31 December 2016)
8% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
23.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$12.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$980.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$831.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$7.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.162 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.179 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$928.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.333 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.399 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
35.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 77.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 30.6%
imports of goods and services: -55% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
31% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Electricity - production59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
72 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production60,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports27,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19.65 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
40 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production61.74 billion cu m (2014 est.)
34 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption47.04 billion cu m (2014 est.)
429 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
395 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity13 million kW (2014 est.)
3.9 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
21.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
78.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1,571 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption64,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
37,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4,367 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
35,710 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy109 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,507,711
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 408,037
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 21.783 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.579 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 2 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid 2016
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to about 130 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2015)
Internet country code.uz
.kg
Internet userstotal: 12.498 million
percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.713 million
percent of population: 30.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)

Transportation

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Railwaystotal: 4,304 km
broad gauge: 4,304 km 1.520-m gauge (1,354 km electrified) (2016)
total: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
total: 34,000 km (2007)
Waterways1,100 km (2012)
600 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)
Airports53 (2013)
28 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Military branchesArmed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
State Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO): Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)

Transnational Issues

UzbekistanKyrgyzstan
Disputes - internationalprolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
Illicit drugstransit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
stateless persons: 2,334 (2016); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; between 2014 and 2016, Kyrgyzstan has resolved nearly 9,000 stateless cases; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits

Source: CIA Factbook