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Uzbekistan vs. Kazakhstan

Introduction

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Background"Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of ""white gold"" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country is striving to reduce its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
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"Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural ""Virgin Lands"" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) further skewed the ethnic mixture. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70% Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.
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Geography

UzbekistanKazakhstan
LocationCentral Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 64 00 E
48 00 N, 68 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
total: 2,724,900 sq km
land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
total: 13,364 km
border countries (5): China 1,765 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km, Russia 7,644 km, Turkmenistan 413 km, Uzbekistan 2,330 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Maritime claimsnone (doubly landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrainmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
mean elevation: 387 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 62.6%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 77.4%
arable land 8.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 1.2%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land42,150 sq km (2012)
20,660 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
Environment - current issuesshrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - notealong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
world's largest landlocked country; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
most of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country

Demographics

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Population29,473,614 (July 2016 est.)
18,360,353 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.22% (male 3,658,960/female 3,480,659)
15-24 years: 19.22% (male 2,874,982/female 2,790,128)
25-54 years: 43.95% (male 6,444,288/female 6,510,741)
55-64 years: 7.54% (male 1,049,876/female 1,171,369)
65 years and over: 5.06% (male 637,408/female 855,203) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.68% (male 2,336,444/female 2,378,769)
15-24 years: 14.66% (male 1,371,133/female 1,319,938)
25-54 years: 42.5% (male 3,808,164/female 3,994,781)
55-64 years: 9.77% (male 784,035/female 1,008,935)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 470,485/female 887,669) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.1 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 30.3 years
male: 29 years
female: 31.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.93% (2016 est.)
1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
18.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.8 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 77 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.8 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 75.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.15% (2015 est.)
0.21% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
Ethnic groupsUzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS32,700 (2015 est.)
23,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,600 (2015 est.)
500 (2015 est.)
LanguagesUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
"Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 74% (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the ""language of interethnic communication"") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
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Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2016)
Education expendituresNA
3.1% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 85.6% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 14.4% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 97.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
Almaty 1.523 million; ASTANA (capital) 759,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.4% (2006)
3.7% (2011)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
4.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.3% (2014)
23.5% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.4 years (2013 est.)
25 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 7
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.3
youth dependency ratio: 40.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1
potential support ratio: 9.9 (2015 est.)

Government

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""uz"" (self) and ""bek"" (master) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) to give the meaning ""Land of the Free""
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"conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: Qazaqstan
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name ""Kazakh"" derives from the Turkic word ""kaz"" meaning ""to wander,"" recalling the Kazakh's nomadic lifestyle; the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Kazakhstan literally means ""Land of the Wanderers""
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Government typepresidential republic; highly authoritarian
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Astana
geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
Administrative divisions12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
14 provinces (oblyslar, singular - oblys) and 2 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty (Taldyqorghan), Almaty*, Aqmola (Kokshetau), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Mangghystau (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
Independence1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 September (1991)
Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence), 1993; latest approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic on the recommendation of Parliament or the government; the president has the option of submitting draft amendments to Parliament or directly to a referendum; passage of amendments to Parliament requires three-fourths majority vote of both houses and the signature of the president; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote by more than one-half of the voters in at least two-thirds of the oblasts, major cities, and the capital, followed by the signature of the president; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016; prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
"chief of state: President Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Bakytzhan SAGINTAYEV (since 9 September 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Askar MAMIN (since 13 September 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis; note - constitutional amendments in May 2007 shortened the presidential term from 7 to 5 years and established a 2-consecutive-term limit; NAZARBAYEV has official status as the ""First President of Kazakhstan"" and is allowed unlimited terms
election results: Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (Nur Otan) 97.8%, other 2.2%
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Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 32 members indirectly elected by majority two-round vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 15 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 98 members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 9 indirectly elected by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, a 350-member, presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities)
elections: Senate - last held on 1 October 2014 (next to be held in 2017); Mazhilis - last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held by 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur Otan 82.2%, Ak Zhol 7.2%, Communist People's Party 7.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Nur Otan 84, Ak Zhol 7, Communist People's Party 7
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council and confirmed by the Senate; judges normally serve until age 65 but can be extended to age 70; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, and the Majilis chairperson each appoints 1 member for a 3-year term and each appoints 1 member for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president of the republic for a 6-year term
subordinate courts: regional and local courts
Political parties and leadersEcological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Ak Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
Auyl National Patriotic Party [Ali BEKTAYEV] (Auyl is a September 2015 merger of the Patriots’ Party and the Auyl Social Democratic Party)
Birlik (Unity) [Serik SULTANGALI] (Birlik is an April 2013 merger of Adilet (Justice; formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan) and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality))
Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]
National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland) Democratic People's Party [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)
Political pressure groups and leadersno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Chairman of Bureau's Council [Roza AKYLBEKOVA]
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Larissa KHARKOVA]
Foundation for Support of Civil Initiatives [Nurul RAKHIMBEK]
International Legal Initiative [Aina SHORMANBAYEVA]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS]
Legal Media Centre (sometimes known as the North Kazakhstan Legal Media Centre) [Diana OKREMOVA]
Public Foundation for Parliamentary Development [Zauresh BATTALOVA]
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Natalya KOVALEVA]
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Yerzhan KAZYKHANOV (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 18 March 2015)
embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Ave. No 3, Astana 010010
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
FAX: [7] (7172) 54-09-14
Consulate(s) General: Almaty
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
"a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern ""koshkar-muiz"" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future
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National anthem"name: ""O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Menin Qazaqstanim"" (My Kazakhstan)
lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Economy - overviewUzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.

Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.

In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries and has made initial attempts to diversify its economy by targeting sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing for greater development and investment.

Kazakhstan's vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Chevron-led Tengizchevroil announced a $36.8 billion expansion of Kazakhstan’s premiere Tengiz oil field in July 2016. Meanwhile, the super-giant Kashagan field finally launched production in October 2016 after years of delay and an estimated $55 billion in development costs.

Kazakhstan is landlocked and depends on Russia to export its oil to Europe. It also exports oil directly to China. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined Russia and Belarus to establish a Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade. The Customs Union evolved into a Single Economic Space in 2012 and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in January 2015. In part due to weak commodity prices, Kazakhstan’s exports to EAEU countries declined 23.5% in 2016. Imports from EAEU countries to Kazakhstan declined 13.7%.

The economic downturn of its EAEU partner, Russia, and the decline in global commodity prices from 2014-2015 contributed to an economic slowdown in Kazakhstan, which continues to experience its slowest economic growth since the financial crises of 2008-09. In 2014, Kazakhstan devalued its currency, the tenge, and announced a stimulus package to cope with its economic challenges. In the face of further decline in the ruble, oil prices, and the regional economy, Kazakhstan announced in 2015 it would replace its currency band with a floating exchange rate, leading to a sharp fall in the value of the tenge. Since reaching a low of 391 to the dollar in January 2016, the tenge has modestly appreciated, helped by somewhat higher oil prices.

Despite some positive institutional and legislative changes in the last several years, investors remain concerned about corruption, bureaucracy, and arbitrary law enforcement, especially at the regional and municipal levels. An additional concern is the condition of the country’s banking sector, which suffers from low liquidity, poor asset quality, and a lack of transparency. Investors also question the potentially negative effects on the economy of a contested presidential succession as Kazakhstan’s first president, Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, who turns 77 in 2017, has not announced whether he will seek reelection in 2019.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$202.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
$176.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$468.8 billion (2016 est.)
$464.2 billion (2015 est.)
$458.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,500 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$5,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$25,700 (2016 est.)
$26,300 (2015 est.)
$26,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.6%
industry: 32.9%
services: 49.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 4.6%
industry: 31.8%
services: 57.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)11.5% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
14.6% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.1 million (2017 est.)
8.964 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 18.1%
industry: 20.4%
services: 61.6% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate5.2% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2015 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
4.9% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)
26.3 (2013)
31.5 (2003)
Budgetrevenues: $13.84 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $23.35 billion
expenditures: $27.25 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
grain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
Exports$12.57 billion (2016 est.)
$12.87 billion (2015 est.)
$35.28 billion (2016 est.)
$46.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesenergy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 25.9%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015)
China 15.1%, Russia 12.3%, France 9.3%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 6.7%, Greece 4.1% (2015)
Imports$12.11 billion (2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (2015 est.)
$24.5 billion (2016 est.)
$33.65 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 11.9%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015)
Russia 32.9%, China 25.9%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$15.75 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$147.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$153.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesUzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
2,963.7 (2016 est.)
2,569.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
1,890.1 (2012 est.)
tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
348.5 (2016 est.)
221.73 (2015 est.)
221.73 (2014 est.)
179.19 (2013 est.)
149.11 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt11% of GDP (2015 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$30.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$907 million (2016 est.)
-$356 million (2015 est.)
-$8.156 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.464 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$67.22 billion (2016 est.)
$128.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$148.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$35.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
$744 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.737 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.23 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate9% (2016)
9% (2015)
11% (10 April 2017)
12% (9 January 2017)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
13.7% (31 March 2017 est.)
14.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$12.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$7.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.162 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.933 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 54.1%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 6.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.2% (2015 est.)
Gross national saving30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
31% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Electricity - production59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
94.49 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
91.66 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
644.2 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production60,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.621 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
145,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports27,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.292 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
30 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production61.74 billion cu m (2014 est.)
21.38 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption47.04 billion cu m (2014 est.)
13.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
13.7 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
2.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity13 million kW (2014 est.)
22.06 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
228,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption64,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
186,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4,367 bbl/day (2013 est.)
846 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
44,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy109 million Mt (2013 est.)
257.8 million Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,507,711
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,143,100
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 21.783 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2015 est.)
total: 31.39 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 173 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 2 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid 2016
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is inadequate; mobile-cellular usage increased rapidly and the market is now highly mature - subscriber base exceeds 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2017)
Internet country code.uz
.kz
Internet userstotal: 12.498 million
percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.23 million
percent of population: 72.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; there are 3 TV channels: Kazakhstan, KAZsport, Balapan; and 4 radio stations: Kazakh Radiosy, Shalkar, Astana, and Classic; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018; broadcasts reach 98.63% of the population as well as neighboring countries (2017)

Transportation

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Railwaystotal: 4,304 km
broad gauge: 4,304 km 1.520-m gauge (1,354 km electrified) (2016)
total: 14,184 km
broad gauge: 14,184 km 1.520-m gauge (4,056 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
total: 97,418 km
paved: 87,140 km
unpaved: 10,278 km (2012)
Waterways1,100 km (2012)
4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)
Pipelinesgas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
condensate 658 km; gas 12,432 km; oil 11,313 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
river port(s): Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)
Airports53 (2013)
96 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 63
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Military

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Military branchesArmed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Defense Forces (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years, but Kazakhstan is transitioning to a largely contract force; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2017)

Transnational Issues

UzbekistanKazakhstan
Disputes - internationalprolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea
Illicit drugstransit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
stateless persons: 8,451 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook