Home

Uzbekistan vs. Afghanistan

Introduction

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Background"Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of ""white gold"" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country is striving to reduce its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
"
Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN.
A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country's first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote-getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as president and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly-created position of chief executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan.
Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.

Geography

UzbekistanAfghanistan
LocationCentral Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 64 00 E
33 00 N, 65 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
total: 652,230 sq km
land: 652,230 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
total: 5,987 km
border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (doubly landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
mean elevation: 1,884 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Noshak 7,485 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 62.6%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 46%
forest: 2.1%
other: 39.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land42,150 sq km (2012)
32,080 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Environment - current issuesshrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notealong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated

Demographics

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Population29,473,614 (July 2016 est.)
33,332,025 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.22% (male 3,658,960/female 3,480,659)
15-24 years: 19.22% (male 2,874,982/female 2,790,128)
25-54 years: 43.95% (male 6,444,288/female 6,510,741)
55-64 years: 7.54% (male 1,049,876/female 1,171,369)
65 years and over: 5.06% (male 637,408/female 855,203) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 41.03% (male 6,947,939/female 6,728,983)
15-24 years: 22.49% (male 3,816,369/female 3,678,657)
25-54 years: 30.01% (male 5,095,905/female 4,907,019)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 640,813/female 660,121)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 396,124/female 460,095) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.1 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.93% (2016 est.)
2.34% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 112.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 120.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.8 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 77 years (2016 est.)
total population: 51.3 years
male: 49.9 years
female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.15% (2015 est.)
0.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
Ethnic groupsUzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS32,700 (2015 est.)
6,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,600 (2015 est.)
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca
note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.2%
male: 52%
female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 11 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expendituresNA
3.4% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 26.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.2% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 55.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.8% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 45.1% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 31.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 54.9% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
8.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.3% (2014)
2.4% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.4 years (2013 est.)
19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 7
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 87
youth dependency ratio: 82.3
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Government

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""uz"" (self) and ""bek"" (master) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) to give the meaning ""Land of the Free""
"
"conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
local short form: Afghanistan
former: Republic of Afghanistan
etymology: the name ""Afghan"" originally referred to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to include all the country's ethnic groups), while the suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country""; so Afghanistan literally means the ""Land of the Afghans""
"
Government typepresidential republic; highly authoritarian
presidential Islamic republic
Capitalname: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Kabul
geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul
Independence1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 September (1991)
Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004
amendments: proposed by a commission formed by presidential decree followed by the convention of a Grand Council (Loya Jirga) decreed by the president; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Loya Jirga membership and endorsement by the president (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016; prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014 ); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014 ); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 26 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote in first round - Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in second round - Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3-year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincial councils to serve 4-year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 must represent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (249 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it consists of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no constitutional Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected; the president appointed 34 members of the Meshrano Jirga that the district councils should have indirectly elected
elections: the Wolesi Jirga’s five-year term expired in 2015, but the president extended its term by decree until elections can be held
election results: results by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the supreme court chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)
judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles
Political parties and leadersEcological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 67 political parties as of September 2015
Political pressure groups and leadersno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Special Charge d'Affaires Hugo Llorens (since December 2016)
embassy: Bibi Mahru, Kabul
mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
telephone: [00 93] 0700 108 001
FAX: [00 93] 0700 108 564
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
"three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning ""God is great""), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam
note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century - 19 by one count - than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them
"
National anthem"name: ""O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Milli Surood"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase ""Allahu Akbar"" (God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
lion; national colors: red, green, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Economy - overviewUzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.

Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.

In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
Afghanistan is gradually recovering from decades of conflict. Before 2014, the economy had sustained nearly a decade of strong growth, largely because of international assistance. Since 2014, however, the economy has slowed, in large part because of the withdrawal of nearly 100,000 foreign troops that had artificially inflated the country’s economic growth. Despite improvements in life expectancy, incomes, and literacy since 2001, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Corruption, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.

The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $83 billion at ten donors' conferences between 2003 and 2016. In October 2016, the donors at the Brussels conference pledged an additional $3.8 billion in development aid annually from 2017 to 2020. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure.

In 2016 Afghanistan's growth rate was only marginally above that of 2014 and 2015. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2012 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$202.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
$176.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$64.08 billion (2016 est.)
$62.82 billion (2015 est.)
$62.35 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
1.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,500 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$5,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.6%
industry: 32.9%
services: 49.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 22%
industry: 22%
services: 56%
note: data exclude opium production (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2016 est.)
35.8% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 24% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)11.5% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
4.5% (2016 est.)
-1.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.1 million (2017 est.)
7.983 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 78.6%
industry: 5.7%
services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)
Unemployment rate5.2% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2015 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
35% (2008 est.)
40% (2005 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $13.84 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.992 billion
expenditures: $6.636 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies
Exports$12.57 billion (2016 est.)
$12.87 billion (2015 est.)
$658 million (2014 est.)
$2.679 billion (2013 est.)
note: not including illicit exports or reexports
Exports - commoditiesenergy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 25.9%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015)
India 43.6%, Pakistan 28.3%, Tajikistan 7.4% (2015)
Imports$12.11 billion (2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (2015 est.)
$7.004 billion (2014 est.)
$12.19 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partnersChina 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 11.9%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015)
Pakistan 39.1%, India 9%, US 8.4%, Turkmenistan 6.3%, China 6.1%, Kazakhstan 6% (2015)
Debt - external$15.75 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.28 billion (FY10/11)
$2.7 billion (FY08/09)
Exchange ratesUzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
2,963.7 (2016 est.)
2,569.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
1,890.1 (2012 est.)
afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
61.14 (2016 est.)
61.14 (2015 est.)
61.14 (2014 est.)
57.25 (2013 est.)
46.45 (2010)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
21 December - 20 December
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.681 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance$907 million (2016 est.)
-$356 million (2015 est.)
$1.337 billion (2016 est.)
$564 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$67.22 billion (2016 est.)
$18.4 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate16% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
15% (31 December 2015 est.)
15% (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$12.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$-454 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$-767.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of narrow money$7.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.162 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 108.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 6.6%
imports of goods and services: -46.2% (2014 est.)
Gross national saving30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
31% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
20% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Electricity - production59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production60,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports27,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production61.74 billion cu m (2014 est.)
159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption47.04 billion cu m (2014 est.)
159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity13 million kW (2014 est.)
600,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
35.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
64.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption64,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
130,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4,367 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
127,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy109 million Mt (2013 est.)
7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 18,999,254
electrification - total population: 43%
electrification - urban areas: 83%
electrification - rural areas: 32% (2012)

Telecommunications

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,507,711
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 110,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 21.783 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2015 est.)
total: 19.709 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 61 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 2 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid 2016
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services
international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2012)
Internet country code.uz
.af
Internet userstotal: 12.498 million
percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.69 million
percent of population: 8.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Roadwaystotal: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
total: 42,150 km
paved: 12,350 km
unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)
Waterways1,100 km (2012)
1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
gas 466 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
Airports53 (2013)
43 (2016)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2016)

Military

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Military branchesArmed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF): Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan National Police, Afghan Local Police (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)

Transnational Issues

UzbekistanAfghanistan
Disputes - internationalprolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
Illicit drugstransit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due to poor weather kept potential opium production - 6,300 metric tons - below the record set in 2007; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 59,737 (Pakistan) (2016)
IDPs: 1.553 million (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and political instability) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook