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Uruguay vs. Argentina

Introduction

UruguayArgentina
BackgroundMontevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

Geography

UruguayArgentina
LocationSouthern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates33 00 S, 56 00 W
34 00 S, 64 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 176,215 sq km
land: 175,015 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km
total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
Area - comparativeabout the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 1,591 km
border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1,050 km
total: 11,968 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1,263 km, Chile 6,691 km, Paraguay 2,531 km, Uruguay 541 km
Coastline660 km
4,989 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatewarm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrainmostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 109 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
mean elevation: 595 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America)
Natural resourcesarable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 87.2%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 76.9%
forest: 10.2%
other: 2.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 53.9%
arable land 13.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 39.6%
forest: 10.7%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,380 sq km (2012)
23,600 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsseasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (elev. 2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Environment - current issueswater pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notesecond-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere
Population distributionmost of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo
one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Demographics

UruguayArgentina
Population3,351,016 (July 2016 est.)
43,886,748 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 20.44% (male 348,547/female 336,435)
15-24 years: 15.78% (male 267,848/female 260,990)
25-54 years: 39.23% (male 649,702/female 664,933)
55-64 years: 10.41% (male 164,201/female 184,784)
65 years and over: 14.13% (male 189,197/female 284,379) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 24.72% (male 5,590,165/female 5,259,163)
15-24 years: 15.43% (male 3,461,288/female 3,312,056)
25-54 years: 39.24% (male 8,593,500/female 8,627,846)
55-64 years: 9.14% (male 1,948,179/female 2,064,463)
65 years and over: 11.46% (male 2,104,830/female 2,925,258) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 34.7 years
male: 33 years
female: 36.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.5 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 32.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.27% (2016 est.)
0.93% (2016 est.)
Birth rate13 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
17 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.2 years
male: 74.1 years
female: 80.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.1 years
male: 74 years
female: 80.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.81 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.48% (2015 est.)
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groupswhite 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS10,100 (2015 est.)
109,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
HIV/AIDS - deaths300 (2015 est.)
2,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Portunol, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2010)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.4% of GDP (2011)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 95.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 91.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.1% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.6% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.4% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMONTEVIDEO (capital) 1.707 million (2015)
BUENOS AIRES (capital) 15.18 million; Cordoba 1.511 million; Rosario 1.381 million; Mendoza 1.009 million; San Miguel de Tucuman 910,000; La Plata 846,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
52 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.5% (2011)
2.3% (2005)
Health expenditures8.6% of GDP (2014)
4.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.94 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.6% (2014)
26.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 51,879
percentage: 7% (2006 est.)
total number: 435,252
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2003 est.)
Demographic profileUruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.
In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.
Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.
Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. European immigration diminished in the 1950s, when Argentina's military dictatorships tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration, however, continued to supply low-skilled workers and today it accounts for three-quarters of Argentina's immigrant population. The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.9
youth dependency ratio: 33.4
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 39.4
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)

Government

UruguayArgentina
Country nameconventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
"conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., ""Land beside the Silvery River"" or ""silvery land,"" which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or ""silvery""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Independence25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 August (1825)
Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853; amended many times, last in 1994 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
Executive branchchief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 26 October 2014, with a runoff election on 30 November 2014 (next to be held on 27 October 2019, and a runoff if needed on 24 November 2019)
election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
chief of state: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held in 2 rounds on 25 October and 22 November 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Mauricio MACRI elected president; percent of vote: first-round results - Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 37.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 34.2%, Sergio MASSA (FR/PJ) 21.4%, other 7.3%; second-round results - Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 51.4%, Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 48.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 15, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Independent Party 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 50, National Party 32, Colorado Party 13, Independent Party 3, Popular Unit Movement 1
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held October 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held October 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 12, FpV 8, PF 2, Progresistas 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 84, Cambiemos 21, Progresistas 9, FR and allies 8, Federal Peronism 3, PP 3, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with reelection after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leadersBroad Front (Frente Amplio) - (a broad governing coalition that includes Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Juan Andres ROBALLO], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League [Dario PEREZ]
Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (or Let's Go Uruguay) [Pedro BORDABERRY], Open Space [Tabare VIERA], and Open Batllism [Ope PASQUET])
Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
National Party or Blanco (including All Forward [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA])
Popular Assembly [Gonzalo ABELLA]
Cambiemos (a coalition composed of CC, PRO, and UCR) [Mauricio MACRI]
Civic Coalition-ARI or CC-ARI (a coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO)
Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a right-wing faction of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners) [Eduardo DUHALDE]
Front for Victory or FpV (left-wing faction of PJ) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Justicialist Party or PJ [Jose Luis GIOJA]
Progresistas [Margarita STOLBIZER]
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Lilia PUIG DE STUBRIN]
Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI]
Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA]
numerous provincial parties
Political pressure groups and leadersB'nai Brith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women
other: students
Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs or CILFA
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
International organization participationCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois (since 23 July 2015)
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kelly KEIDERLING (since 6 December July 2016)
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 1770-2000
FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Tom COONEY (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Flag descriptionnine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional"" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI
note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as ""Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!"" (""Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!""); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Argentino"" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA
note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

UruguayArgentina
Economy - overviewUruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor’s mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net.

Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the period 2004-08. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country managed to avoid a recession and keep positive growth rates, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed markedly in 2012-16 as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Reforms in those countries should give Uruguay an economic boost.
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. In 2016, the World Bank downgraded Argentina from a high-income to upper-middle-income economy, on par with Columbia.

A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and an unprecedented bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - at the time the largest ever - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines below the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in 2007, with understating inflation data.

Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy in 2010 rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits.

In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves.

With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his Administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy. His administration lifted capital controls, floated the peso, removed export controls on some commodities, cut some energy subsidies, and reformed the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors and returned to international capital markets in April 2016. In September 2016, Argentina completed its first IMF Article IV Consultation since 2006.

After years of international isolation, Argentina has taken on several international leadership roles in 2017, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$73.25 billion (2016 est.)
$72.74 billion (2015 est.)
$71.68 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$879.4 billion (2016 est.)
$895.2 billion (2015 est.)
$873.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.7% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2014 est.)
-1.8% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
-2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$20,300 (2016 est.)
$22,000 (2015 est.)
$21,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,200 (2016 est.)
$20,800 (2015 est.)
$20,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.3%
industry: 26.1%
services: 67.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 30.2%
services: 58.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line9.7% (2015 est.)
32.2%
note: data are based on private estimates (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)9.9% (2016 est.)
9.4% (2015 est.)
42.8% (2016 est.)
26.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are derived from private estimates
Labor force1.736 million (2016 est.)
17.71 million
note: urban areas only (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 13%
industry: 14%
services: 73% (2010 est.)
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 24.8%
services: 74.7% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate7.1% (2016 est.)
7.5% (2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
7.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index41.6 (2014)
41.9 (2013)
42.7 (2014)
45.8 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $14.29 billion
expenditures: $14.81 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $115.9 billion
expenditures: $141.7 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
1.7%
note: based on private sector estimates (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsCellulose, beef, soybeans, rice, wheat; dairy products; fish; lumber, tobacco, wine
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Exports$6.861 billion (2016 est.)
$7.675 billion (2015 est.)
$58.4 billion (2016 est.)
$56.76 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesbeef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products, wool
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partnersChina 15%, Brazil 14.4%, US 6.5%, Argentina 4.8% (2015)
Brazil 17.8%, China 9.1%, US 6%, Chile 4.2% (2015)
Imports$7.788 billion (2016 est.)
$9.489 billion (2015 est.)
$57.23 billion (2016 est.)
$57.18 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesrefined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partnersBrazil 18.4%, China 17.5%, Argentina 12%, US 9.2%, Germany 4.5%, Nigeria 4.1% (2015)
Brazil 21.9%, China 19.7%, US 12.9%, Germany 5.2% (2015)
Debt - external$21.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$155.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$136.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesUruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar -
32.03 (2016 est.)
27.52 (2015 est.)
27.52 (2014 est.)
23.246 (2013 est.)
20.31 (2012 est.)
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
14.92 (2016 est.)
9.2332 (2015 est.)
9.2332 (2014 est.)
8.0753 (2013 est.)
4.54 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt62.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
53.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$32.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$547 million (2016 est.)
-$1.119 billion (2015 est.)
-$14.17 billion (2016 est.)
-$16.8 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$58.5 billion (2016 est.)
$541.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$23.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$103.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$272.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$153.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$175.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$174.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$156.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate9% (31 December 2012)
8.75% (31 December 2011)
note: Uruguay's central bank uses the benchmark interest rate, rather than the discount rate, to conduct monetary policy; the rates shown here are the benchmark rates
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.84% (31 December 2015 est.)
32.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.92% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$17.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$182.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.121 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.022 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$54.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$52.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$8.568 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.919 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$150.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$138.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 19.2%
male: 15.8%
female: 24% (2013 est.)
total: 18.8%
male: 16.7%
female: 22.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.2%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 63.7%
government consumption: 19.3%
investment in fixed capital: 16%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 13.2%
imports of goods and services: -13.9% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving17.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UruguayArgentina
Electricity - production13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
126 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
116 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports700 million kWh (2012 est.)
10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
532,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports42,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
7,460 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
37,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
2.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
332.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
35.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption60 million cu m (2014 est.)
47.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
70 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports60 million cu m (2014 est.)
11.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.4 million kW (2014 est.)
36 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants53.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
26% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production45,860 bbl/day (2013 est.)
670,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption59,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
751,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports538 bbl/day (2013 est.)
63,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports12,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
109,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
202 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 20,106
electrification - total population: 99.4%
electrification - urban areas: 99.7%
electrification - rural areas: 93.8% (2012)
population without electricity: 1,500,000
electrification - total population: 96.4%
electrification - urban areas: 99.2%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)

Telecommunications

UruguayArgentina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,106,431
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 10,119,920
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5.495 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 164 (July 2015 est.)
total: 60.664 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fully digitalized
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 195 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: in 1998 Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2011)
Internet country code.uy
.ar
Internet userstotal: 2.159 million
percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 30.142 million
percent of population: 69.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2010)
government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2009)

Transportation

UruguayArgentina
Railwaystotal: 1,673 km (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km)
standard gauge: 1,673 km 1.435-m gauge (2016)
total: 36,917.4 km
broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge; 258 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 77,732 km
paved: 7,743 km
unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
total: 231,374 km
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)
Waterways1,600 km (2011)
11,000 km (2012)
Pipelinesgas 257 km; oil 160 km (2013)
gas 29,930 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 6,248 km; refined products 3,631 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Montevideo
major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
Merchant marinetotal: 16
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Argentina 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Spain 5)
registered in other countries: 1 (Liberia 1) (2010)
total: 36
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 5, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4
foreign-owned: 14 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, Taiwan 2, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 15 (Liberia 1, Panama 5, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Airports133 (2013)
1,138 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 161
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 122
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 79 (2013)
total: 977
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 484
under 914 m: 448 (2013)

Military

UruguayArgentina
Military branchesUruguayan Armed Forces: Uruguayan National Army (Ejercito Nacional Uruguaya, ENU), Uruguayan National Navy (Armada Nacional del Uruguay, includes naval air arm, Naval Rifle Corps (Cuerpo de Fusileros Navales, Fusna), Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2012)
Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies; minimum 6-year education (2013)
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.8% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.86% of GDP (2013)
1.77% of GDP (2012)
1.76% of GDP (2011)
0.86% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.83% of GDP (2013)
0.78% of GDP (2012)
0.76% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

UruguayArgentina
Disputes - internationalin 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
Illicit drugssmall-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)

Source: CIA Factbook