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Ukraine vs. Poland

Introduction

UkrainePoland
Background"Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.
A peaceful mass protest referred to as the ""Orange Revolution"" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.
Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a ""referendum"" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The ""referendum"" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the ""referendum"" as baseless and invalid and confiming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.
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"Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union ""Solidarity"" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A ""shock therapy"" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
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Geography

UkrainePoland
LocationEastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Central Europe, east of Germany
Geographic coordinates49 00 N, 32 00 E
52 00 N, 20 00 E
Map referencesAsia, Europe
Europe
Areatotal: 603,550 sq km
land: 579,330 sq km
water: 24,220 sq km
note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied
total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
Area - comparativealmost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
about twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 5,618 km
border countries (7): Belarus 1,111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1,202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1,944 km, Slovakia 97 km
total: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
Coastline2,782 km
440 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Climatetemperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrainmostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 175 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
mean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
Natural resourcesiron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 56.1%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 13.6%
forest: 16.8%
other: 12% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land21,670 sq km (2012)
970 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; occasional droughts
flooding
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - notestrategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
Population distributiondensest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa
population concentrated in the southern (Krakow) and central (Warsaw, Lodz) areas, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk

Demographics

UkrainePoland
Population44,209,733 (July 2016 est.)
38,523,261 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.51% (male 3,528,821/female 3,326,405)
15-24 years: 10.3% (male 2,334,454/female 2,218,718)
25-54 years: 44.47% (male 9,639,404/female 10,020,385)
55-64 years: 13.68% (male 2,587,898/female 3,458,016)
65 years and over: 16.05% (male 2,375,904/female 4,719,728) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.72% (male 2,915,840/female 2,754,098)
15-24 years: 11.11% (male 2,195,587/female 2,082,634)
25-54 years: 43.5% (male 8,456,789/female 8,301,167)
55-64 years: 14.42% (male 2,623,838/female 2,931,215)
65 years and over: 16.26% (male 2,460,648/female 3,801,445) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.4 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 43.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.3 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 42 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.39% (2016 est.)
-0.11% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71.8 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 76.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.6 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 81.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.86% (2015 est.)
0.07% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
Ethnic groupsUkrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS219,000 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsOrthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)
Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths7,900 (2015 est.)
NA
Languages"Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldavian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of ""regional language,"" allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language
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Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
Education expenditures6% of GDP (2014)
4.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 69.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 60.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 97.8% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 2.2% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKYIV (capital) 2.942 million; Kharkiv 1.441 million; Odesa 1.01 million; Dnipropetrovsk 957,000; Donetsk 934,000; Zaporizhzhya 753,000 (2015)
WARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.1% of GDP (2014)
6.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.7% (2014)
27% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth25 years (2013 est.)
27.2 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.3
youth dependency ratio: 21.4
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 22.3
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)

Government

UkrainePoland
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word ""ukraina"" meaning ""borderland or march (militarized border region)"" and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originally Ukrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic ""pole"" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
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Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Kyiv (Kiev)
note: pronounced KAY-yiv
geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k (Dnipro), Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnyts'kyy), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment
note 2: the US Government does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
Independence24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus), 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)
11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996
amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one-third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended 2004, 2010, 2015 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Petro POROSHENKO (since 7 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Volodymyr HROYSMAN (since 14 April 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Stepan KUBIV (since 14 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister nominated by the president, confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada
election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote 257-50
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Beata SZYDLO (since 16 November 2015); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Development Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 16 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 and 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Andrzej DUDA 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - because of the Russian annexation of Crimea and the partial occupation of two eastern provinces, 27 of the 450 seats remain unfilled
elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held fall of 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11.0%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 13.9%; seats by party - BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant; seats as of December 2015 - BPP 139, NF 81, OB 43, Samopomich 26, Vidrozhennya 23, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 19, VN 20, independent 50, vacant 28
description: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly
note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019); Sejm - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 62, PO 33, PSL 1, independents 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 37.6%, PO 24.1%, K15 8.8%, N 7.6%, PSL 5.1% other 16.8%; seats by party - PiS 234, PO 138, K15 40, N 29, PSL 16, independent 2, German minority 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; State Tribunal, administrative courts; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
Political parties and leaders"Batkivshchyna (""Fatherland"") [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Vitaliy KLYCHKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)
Narodnyy Front (""People's Front"") or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]
Opposition Bloc or OB [Yuriy BOYKO]
Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
Samopomich (""Self Reliance"") [Andriy SADOVYY]
Svoboda (""Freedom"") [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Taras BATENKO]
Vidrozhennya (""Revival"") [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK] (parliamentary group)
Volya Narodu (“People's Will”) or VN [Yaroslav MOSKALENKO] (parliamentary group)
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"Civic Platform or PO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA, chairperson; Slawomir NEUMANN, parliamentary caucus leader]
Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic-Liberty and Hope or KORWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, chairman]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY, chairman]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]
Kukiz 15 [Pawel KUKIZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Ryszard TERLECKI, parliamentary caucus leader]
Nowoczesna (""Modern"") or N [Ryszard PETRU; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Razem (Together) [no party chair, led by nine-member management board]
"
Political pressure groups and leadersCentre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]
OPORA Civic Network [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
"All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union ""Solidarity"" [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
"
International organization participationAustralia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy CHALYY (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Piotr WILCZEK (since October 2016)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Marie YOVANOVITCH (since 29 August 2016)
embassy: 4 Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul JONES (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
National anthem"name: ""Shche ne vmerla Ukraina"" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI
note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003
"
"name: ""Mazurek Dabrowskiego"" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as ""Jeszcze Polska nie zginela"" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
white eagle; national colors: white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

UkrainePoland
Economy - overviewAfter Russia, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment, such as, large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.

Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF –encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, the international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework.

Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and on-going aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, Ukraine’s economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 14.3% in 2015, but grew by 2.3% in 2016 as key reforms took hold. After the EU and Ukraine enacted the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and Russia imposed a series of trade restrictions, the EU replaced Russia as Ukraine’s largest trading partner. Analysts predict approximately 2% growth in 2017, but a new prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories will have an uncertain effect on Ukraine’s key industrial sectors.
Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term. However, since 2015 Warsaw’s prioritization of spending on social welfare programs has prompted investors to decrease Poland’s economic growth projections for the next few years.

The Polish economy performed well during 2014-16, with the real GDP growth rate exceeding 3%, in part because of the government’s fiscal prudence. Poland’s economic growth in 2017 is projected by some credit rating agencies to slow, however, because of Poland’s government’s increase in social spending since 2015, including the provision of cash transfers for low income families, families with more than one child, and the reduction of the retirement age which will take effect in October 2017. The government has tried to introduce new taxes and boost tax compliance to offset the costs of the social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland will exceed the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$352.6 billion (2016 est.)
$344.6 billion (2015 est.)
$402.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.052 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.02 trillion (2015 est.)
$984.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.3% (2016 est.)
-14.3% (2015 est.)
-6.6% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
3.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$8,200 (2016 est.)
$8,100 (2015 est.)
$8,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$27,700 (2016 est.)
$26,800 (2015 est.)
$25,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.4%
industry: 26.3%
services: 59.3%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 38.5%
services: 58.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line24.1% (2010 est.)
17.6% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)13.5% (2016 est.)
48.7% (2015 est.)
note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.04 million (2016 est.)
17.78 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 5.8%
industry: 26.5%
services: 67.8%
(2014)
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015)
Unemployment rate10% (2016 est.)
9.1% (2015 est.)
note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers
9.6% (2016 est.)
10.5% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index24.6 (2013)
28.2 (2009)
30.8 (2015)
33.7 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $27.8 billion
expenditures: $30.87 billion
note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2016 est.)
revenues: $73.4 billion
expenditures: $86.56 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescoal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Industrial production growth rate2% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
Exports$33.97 billion (2016 est.)
$35.5 billion (2015 est.)
$188.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs
machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersRussia 12.7%, Turkey 7.3%, China 6.3%, Egypt 5.5%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5.2% (2015)
Germany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015)
Imports$38.3 billion (2016 est.)
$38.94 billion (2015 est.)
$189.5 billion (2016 est.)
$188.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesenergy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
Imports - partnersRussia 20%, Germany 10.4%, China 10.1%, Belarus 6.5%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 4.2% (2015)
Germany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$127.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$119.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$332.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateshryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -
25.26 (2016 est.)
21.8447 (2015 est.)
21.8447 (2014 est.)
11.8867 (2013 est.)
7.99 (2012 est.)
zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
4.056 (2016 est.)
3.7721 (2015 est.)
3.7721 (2014 est.)
3.1538 (2013 est.)
3.26 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt78.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
79.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)
44.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
45% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$16.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$90.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.367 billion (2016 est.)
-$251 million (2015 est.)
-$1.395 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.932 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$87.2 billion (2016 est.)
$467.4 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$65.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$60.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$228.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$221.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$7.983 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.183 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$64.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$25.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$261.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$351.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate22% (23 December 2015)
7.5% (31 January 2012)
1.5% (31 December 2016)
2% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate18.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
21.82% (31 December 2015 est.)
5.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.92% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$60.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$337.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$19.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$177.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$78.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$306.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$318.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 23.1%
male: 23.7%
female: 22.4% (2014 est.)
total: 23.9%
male: 22.7%
female: 25.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.3%
government consumption: 20.3%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 55.9%
imports of goods and services: -59.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 57.4%
government consumption: 17.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 50.5%
imports of goods and services: -46.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UkrainePoland
Electricity - production171 billion kWh (2014 est.)
150 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
142 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports8.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014)
Electricity - imports89 million kWh (2014 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production35,910 bbl/day (2015 est.)
17,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports24,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
532,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports668.1 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4,761 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
100 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
81.66 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production19.9 billion cu m (2015)
3.954 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption33.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
14.79 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
76 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports20 billion cu m (2014 est.)
11.82 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity56 million kW (2014 est.)
40.34 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels63.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
87.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants9.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels23.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
11.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production96,210 bbl/day (2013 est.)
568,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption257,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
536,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports19,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
160,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports153,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
128,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy291 million Mt (2013 est.)
296 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

UkrainePoland
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 9,113,061
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4.245 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 60.72 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137 (July 2015 est.)
total: 56.838 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 147 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system
domestic: the country's former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now over 135 mobile phones per 100 persons
international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2015)
general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
Internet country code.ua
.pl
Internet userstotal: 21.886 million
percent of population: 49.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 26.221 million
percent of population: 68% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-controlled nationwide TV broadcast channel (UT1) and a number of privately owned TV networks provide basic TV coverage; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; Russian television broadcasts have a small audience nationwide, but larger audiences in the eastern and southern regions; the radio broadcast market, a mix of independent and state-owned networks, is comprised of some 300 stations (2007)
state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)

Transportation

UkrainePoland
Railwaystotal: 21,733 km
broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified)
standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)
total: 19,231 km
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,865 km electrified) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 169,694 km
paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
total: 417,026 km
paved: 287,650 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,376 km (2014)
Waterways1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
Pipelinesgas 36,720 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,363 km (2013)
gas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie
Merchant marinetotal: 134
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 98, chemical tanker 1, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, specialized tanker 2
registered in other countries: 172 (Belize 6, Cambodia 35, Comoros 10, Cyprus 3, Dominica 1, Georgia 10, Liberia 10, Malta 29, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 14, Mongolia 1, Panama 8, Russia 12, Saint Kitts and Nevis 8, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12, Sierra Leone 5, Slovakia 2, unknown 5) (2010)
total: 9
by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 106 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 34, Cyprus 24, Liberia 13, Malta 21, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 9) (2010)
Airports187 (2013)
126 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 108
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 28 (2013)
total: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 79
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Heliports9 (2013)
6 (2013)

Military

UkrainePoland
Military branchesGround Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2013)
Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defense Force (2017)
note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016
Military service age and obligation20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2015)
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.8% of GDP (2016)
4% of GDP (2015)
3.02% of GDP (2014)
2.39% of GDP (2013)
2.35% of GDP (2012)
2% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.23% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.72% of GDP (2013)
1.74% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

UkrainePoland
Disputes - international1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
Illicit drugslimited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1,641,895 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2017)
stateless persons: 35,363 (2016); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship
refugees (country of origin): 71,302 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015); 9,864 (Russia) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook