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Uganda vs. South Sudan

Introduction

UgandaSouth Sudan
BackgroundThe colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.
Egypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession.
Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces led to a humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out between the two principal signatories plunging the country back into conflict.

Geography

UgandaSouth Sudan
LocationEast-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 32 00 E
8 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
total: 644,329 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
Area - comparativeslightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
total: 6,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km
note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
Terrainmostly plateau with rim of mountains
plains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: NA
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
Irrigated land140 sq km (2012)
1,000 sq km (2012)
Geography - notelandlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the country's total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands

Demographics

UgandaSouth Sudan
Population38,319,241
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
12,530,717 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 48.26% (male 9,223,926/female 9,268,714)
15-24 years: 21.13% (male 4,010,464/female 4,087,350)
25-54 years: 26.1% (male 5,005,264/female 4,997,907)
55-64 years: 2.5% (male 460,000/female 496,399)
65 years and over: 2.01% (male 337,787/female 431,430) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.86% (male 2,866,374/female 2,755,451)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 1,338,548/female 1,208,109)
25-54 years: 29.4% (male 1,783,091/female 1,901,553)
55-64 years: 3.31% (male 222,760/female 192,274)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 145,687/female 116,870) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 15.7 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 15.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.1 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.22% (2016 est.)
3.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate43.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.8 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.19 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate7.07% (2015 est.)
2.47% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
Ethnic groupsBaganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,461,700 (2015 est.)
179,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
animist, Christian
HIV/AIDS - deaths28,200 (2015 est.)
11,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures1.7% of GDP (2014)
0.8% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 16.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 18.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 6.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
JUBA (capital) 321,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.1% (2011)
27.6% (2010)
Health expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
2.7% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.9% (2014)
6.6% (2014)
Demographic profileUganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.
Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.
Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s businesspeople and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.
South Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.
Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.
More than 900,000 South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in 2013, almost 200,000 alone have fled since the most recent outbreak of violence in early July 2016. Another 1.7 million South Sudanese are internally displaced. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.3% (2015)
4% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 102.3
youth dependency ratio: 97.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.7
youth dependency ratio: 77.3
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)

Government

UgandaSouth Sudan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the Swahili ""Buganda,"" adopted by the British as the name for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
"
"conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo; note - four new districts, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Omoro, and Rubanda, have been reported, but not yet vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
Independence9 October 1962 (from the UK)
9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 October (1962)
Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended 2013, 2015 (2016)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016))
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limit); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)
cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2018 due to instability and violence)
election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
Legislative branch"description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (427 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 ""representatives"" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
"
description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (400 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan)
elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; because of political instability, current parliamentary term extended until next election on 9 July 2018); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, DCP 4, independent 6, unknown 65
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts ; local council courts; family and children courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature
subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
Political parties and leadersConservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Mugisha MUNTU]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
Democratic Change Party or DCP [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA (since 6 June 2013)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
chief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambsssador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catherine PHEE (since July 2015)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
Flag descriptionsix equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan
note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's
National anthem"name: ""Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!""
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962
"
name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers
note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
National symbol(s)grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

UgandaSouth Sudan
Economy - overviewUganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing more than one-third of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Uganda’s economy remains predominantly agricultural with a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs like oil and equipment. Overall productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including underinvestment in an agricultural sector that continues to rely on rudimentary technology. Industrial growth is impeded by high-costs due to poor infrastructure, low levels of private investment, and the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling.

Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes were especially aimed at dampening inflation while encouraging foreign investment to boost production and export earnings. Since 1990, economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, and better domestic security.

The global economic downturn in 2008 hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and a rapidly growing urban consumer population. Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as production starts in the next five to 10 years. However, lower oil prices since 2014 and protracted negotiations and legal disputes between the Ugandan government and oil companies may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. High energy costs, inadequate transportation and energy infrastructure, insufficient budgetary discipline, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence. During 2015 and 2016, the Uganda shilling depreciated 50% against the dollar.

The budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while relying on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through low-interest concessional loans. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.
Following several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. After independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency.

South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 200 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan.

Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan used to rely on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues before oil production fell sharply. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted 15 months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP grew by nearly 30% in 2013. However, the outbreak of conflict on 15 December 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil production and exports, meant that GDP growth fell significantly in 2014 and 2015 as poverty and food insecurity rose. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle.

South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and revenue shortfalls due to low oil prices and decreased production. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Annual inflation peaked at over 800% in October 2016. The government has relied on borrowing from the central bank to fund budget expenses. The decision in December 2015 by the central bank to abandon a fixed exchange rate and allow the South Sudanese Pound to float has not reduced inflation in the short term. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$84.93 billion (2016 est.)
$80.92 billion (2015 est.)
$77.21 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20.88 billion (2016 est.)
$24.04 billion (2015 est.)
$24.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.9% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
4.9% (2014 est.)
-13.1% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,100 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,700 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
Population below poverty line19.7% (2013 est.)
50.6% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.6% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
800% (2016 est.)
52.8% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
46 (2010 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $3.748 billion
expenditures: $5.41 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $437 million
expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
Exchange ratesUgandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,427 (2016 est.)
3,234.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
2,505.6 (2012 est.)
South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.544 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.669 billion (2015 est.)
$181 million (2016 est.)
-$902 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$25.61 billion (2016 est.)
$2.628 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.873 billion (31 December 2013)
$2.032 billion (31 December 2012)
Stock of broad money$4.262 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.705 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-69.3% of GDP (FY2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 2.6%
male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)
total: 18.5%
male: 20%
female: 17% (2008 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 73.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
Gross national saving16.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

UgandaSouth Sudan
Electricity - production3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
881.3 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
694.1 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports100 million kWh (2014)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports50 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
220,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
98,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves2.5 billion bbl
3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity711,400 kW (2014 est.)
255,200 kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants59.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
11,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports26,290 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 32,100,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
population without electricity: 11,200,000
electrification - total population: 1%
electrification - urban areas: 4%
electrification - rural areas: 0% (2013)

Telecommunications

UgandaSouth Sudan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 328,811
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 150
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2015)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 20.22 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 54 (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.899 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and fiber-optic cables through Kenya and the Indian Ocean
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 55 per 100 persons
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania (2015)
international: country code - 211
Internet country code.ug
.ss
Broadcast mediapublic broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007, there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
TV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available

Transportation

UgandaSouth Sudan
Railwaystotal: 1,244 km
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 248 km
note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 20,000 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 3,264 km
unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)
total: 7,000 km
note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
Waterways(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
see entry for Sudan
Airports47 (2013)
85 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 82
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2013)

Military

UgandaSouth Sudan
Military branchesUganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
Military service age and obligation"18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, ""no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces""; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
"
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2016, UNICEF estimates that more than 17,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)
3.22% of GDP (2011)
10.93% of GDP (2015)
9.77% of GDP (2014)
7.41% of GDP (2013)
9.53% of GDP (2012)
5.91% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

UgandaSouth Sudan
Disputes - internationalUganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
"South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 950,562 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 218,981 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 48,439 (Burundi); 42,826 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 17,147 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 53,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 247,111 (Sudan); 14,548 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 1.89 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook