Turkey vs. Greece


BackgroundModern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2013, KGK and the Turkish Government agreed to a ceasefire that continues despite slow progress in ongoing peace talks. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.


LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and SyriaSouthern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E39 00 N, 22 00 E
Map referencesMiddle EastEurope
Areatotal: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
total: 131,957 sq km
land: 130,647 sq km
water: 1,310 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Texasslightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundariestotal: 2,816 km
border countries: Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
total: 1,110 km
border countries: Albania 212 km, Bulgaria 472 km, Macedonia 234 km, Turkey 192 km
Coastline7,200 km13,676 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interiortemperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain rangesmostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Elevation extremeslowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropowerlignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
Land usearable land: 26.21%
permanent crops: 3.94%
other: 69.84% (2011)
arable land: 18.95%
permanent crops: 8.73%
other: 72.32% (2011)
Irrigated land53,400 sq km (2012)15,550 sq km (2007)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
severe earthquakes
volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship trafficair pollution; water pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the countrystrategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
Total renewable water resources211.6 cu km (2011)74.25 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 40.1 cu km/yr (14%/10%/76%)
per capita: 572.9 cu m/yr (2008)
total: 9.47 cu km/yr (9%/2%/89%)
per capita: 841.4 cu m/yr (2007)


Population81,619,392 (July 2014 est.)10,775,557 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.5% (male 10,660,110/female 10,179,850)
15-24 years: 16.8% (male 6,989,099/female 6,709,480)
25-54 years: 42.9% (male 17,650,790/female 17,358,730)
55-64 years: 8.1% (male 3,289,605/female 3,291,199)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 2,517,219/female 2,973,310) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 14.1% (male 781,151/female 735,444)
15-24 years: 9.8% (male 537,849/female 515,359)
25-54 years: 43.2% (male 2,321,709/female 2,337,502)
55-64 years: 12.7% (male 670,270/female 694,399)
65 years and over: 20.2% (male 954,605/female 1,227,269) (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.6 years
male: 29.2 years
female: 30 years (2014 est.)
total: 43.5 years
male: 42.4 years
female: 44.6 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.12% (2014 est.)0.01% (2014 est.)
Birth rate16.86 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)8.8 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate6.12 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)11 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate0.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 4.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.29 years
male: 71.33 years
female: 75.35 years (2014 est.)
total population: 80.3 years
male: 77.71 years
female: 83.06 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate2.08 children born/woman (2014 est.)1.41 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateless than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2009 est.)0.1% (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
noun: Greek(s)
adjective: Greek
Ethnic groupsTurkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS4,600 (2009 est.)8,800 (2009 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)Greek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 200 (2009 est.)fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languagesGreek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.1%
male: 97.9%
female: 90.3% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 98.4%
female: 96.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 15 years
female: 14 years (2011)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2007)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2006)4.1% of GDP (2005)
Urbanizationurban population: 71.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 61.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.63% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.8% of population
total: 99.7% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.2% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2012 est.)
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.4% of population
total: 99.8% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.6% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 75.5% of population
total: 91.2% of population
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 24.5% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2012 est.)
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 97.5% of population
total: 98.6% of population
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 2.5% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationIstanbul 11.253 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.194 million; Izmir 2.927 million; Bursa 1.713 million; Adana 1.468 million; Gaziantep 1.198 million (2011)ATHENS (capital) 3.414 million; Thessaloniki 883,000 (2011)
Maternal mortality rate20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)3 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Health expenditures6.7% of GDP (2011)9% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2011)6.04 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density2.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)4.9 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.8% (2008)20.1% (2008)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.3 (2010 est.)31.2 (2010 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73% (2008)76.2%
note: percent of women aged 16-45 (2001)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 37.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 11.2 %
potential support ratio: 8.9 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 22.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 30.5 %
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2014 est.)


Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
conventional short form: Greece
local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia
local short form: Ellas or Ellada
former: Kingdom of Greece
Government typerepublican parliamentary democracyparliamentary republic
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Athens
geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)
Independence29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)1830 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010 (2010)many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975; amended 1986, 2001, 2008 (2013)
Legal systemcivil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil codecivil legal system based on Roman law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president upon the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL elected president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 March 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonis SAMARAS (since 20 June 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 February 2010 (next to be held by February 2015); president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister and form a government
election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS reelected president; number of parliamentary votes - 266 out of 300
Legislative branchunicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 June 2011 (next likely to be held by June 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.8%, CHP 25.9%, MHP 13%, independents 6.6%, other 4.7%; seats by party - AKP 326, CHP 135, MHP 53, independents 36; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 June 2012 (next scheduled to be held by 2016); note - there was a legislative election on 6 May 2012 in which none of the leaders of the top three parties (New Democracy, Coalition of the Radical Left, and the Panhellenic Socialist Movement) were able to form a government
election results: percent of vote by party - ND 29.7%, SYRIZA 26.9%, PASOK 12.3%, ANEL 7.5%, Golden Dawn 6.9%, DIMAR 6.3%, KKE 4.5%, other 6.0%; seats by party - ND 129, SYRIZA 71, PASOK 33, ANEL 20, Golden Dawn 18, DIMAR 17, KKE 12; note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups, but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold; note - as of 20 January 2014 the composition of the Parliament was ND 126, SYRIZA 71, PASOK 27, ANEL 17, Golden Dawn 18, DIMAR 14, KKE 12, Independent Democratic Deputies 11, independents 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals organized into 15 divisions with 38 civil and criminal chambers and consisting of 250 high judges and 440 rapporteur judges)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president from among candidates submitted by plenary assemblies of other courts, the Higher Education Council, senior government administrators, and lawyers; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms and with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
highest court(s): Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law (consists of 56 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Supreme Judicial Council which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period
subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; Court of Auditors
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]
Democratic Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party)
Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Independent Turkey Party or BTP [Haydar BAS]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]
People's Democracy Party or HDP [Sebahat TUNCEL]
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]

note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [Petros KONSTANTINOU]
Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexis TSIPRAS]
Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitris KOUTSOUMBAS]
Democratic Left or DIMAR [Fotis KOUVELIS]
Ecologist Greens [Nikos CHRYSOGELOS]
Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]
Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
New Democracy or ND [Antonis SAMARAS]
Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Evangelos VENIZELOS]
Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Georgios KARATZAFERIS]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sedar KILIC (since 21 May 1014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, Newton (MA)
chief of mission: Ambassador Christos P. PANAGOPOULOUS (since 17 September 2012)
chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco
consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr. (since 3 January 2011)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
chief of mission: Ambassador David D. PEARCE (since 5 September 2013)
embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens
mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108
telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282
consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki (2012)
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam; according to legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriorsnine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors; the exact shade of blue has never been set by law and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time
National anthemname: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)
lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS
note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158 verse poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans; Cyprus also uses "Hymn to Liberty" as its anthem
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Economy - overviewTurkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Growth dropped to roughly 3-4% in 2012-13. Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen below 40%, and two rating agencies upgraded Turkey's debt to investment grade in 2012 and 2013. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large current account deficit. The stock value of FDI reached nearly $195 billion at year-end 2013, reflecting Turkey's robust growth even in the face of economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey's FDI. Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, domestic political uncertainty, and turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.Greece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 18% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy averaged growth of about 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, but the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit. By 2013 the economy had contracted 26%, compared with the pre-crisis level of 2007. Greece met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP in 2007-08, but violated it in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15% of GDP. Austerity measures have reduced the deficit to about 4% in 2013, including government debt payments. Deteriorating public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies to downgrade Greece's international debt rating in late 2009, and led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government adopted a medium-term austerity program that includes cutting government spending, decreasing tax evasion, overhauling the health-care and pension systems, and reforming the labor and product markets. Athens, however, faces long-term challenges to continue pushing through unpopular reforms in the face of widespread unrest from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public. In April 2010 a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating; in May 2010, the International Monetary Fund and Euro-Zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totaling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken. Greece, however, struggled to meet 2010 targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion. The second deal however, called for holders of Greek government bonds to write down a significant portion of their holdings. As Greek banks held a significant portion of sovereign debt, the banking system was adversely affected by the write down and €41 billion of the second bailout package was set aside to ensure the banking system was adequately capitalized. In exchange for the second loan Greece promised to introduce an additional $7.8 billion in austerity measures during 2013-15. However, the massive austerity cuts have prolonged Greece's economic recession and depressed tax revenues. Throughout 2013, Greece's lenders called on Athens to step up efforts to increase tax collection, dismiss public servants, privatize public enterprises, and rein in health spending. In June 2013 Prime Minister Antonis SAMARAS's efforts to meet bailout conditions led to the departure of one party, the Democratic Left, from the governing coalition when his government made the controversial decision to shut down and restructure the state-owned television and radio company. Subsequent reluctance to institute further cuts and delays in meeting public sector reform targets prompted Greek lenders to withhold bailout fund disbursements until December 2013. However, investor confidence began to show signs of strengthening by the end of 2013 as leading macroeconomic indicators suggested the economy’s freefall had been arrested.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.167 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.124 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.101 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$267.1 billion (2013 est.)
$277.7 billion (2012 est.)
$296.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.8% (2013 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)
8.8% (2011 est.)
-3.8% (2013 est.)
-6.4% (2012 est.)
-7.1% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,300 (2013 est.)
$15,000 (2012 est.)
$14,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$23,600 (2013 est.)
$24,600 (2012 est.)
$26,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.9%
industry: 27.3%
services: 63.8% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 16%
services: 80.5% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line16.9% (2010)20% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 26% (2000 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)7.6% (2013 est.)
8.9% (2012 est.)
-0.8% (2013 est.)
1.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force27.91 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2013 est.)
4.918 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.5%
industry: 26.2%
services: 48.4% (2010)
agriculture: 12.4%
industry: 22.4%
services: 65.1% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate9.3% (2013 est.)
9.2% (2012 est.)
27.9% (2013 est.)
24.3% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.2 (2010)
43.6 (2003)
34.3 (2012 est.)
33.5 (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $190.4 billion
expenditures: $207.9 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $106.2 billion
expenditures: $116 billion (2013 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, papertourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2013 est.)-3.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestockwheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
Exports$167.6 billion (2013 est.)
$163.3 billion (2012 est.)
$30.39 billion (2013 est.)
$28.31 billion (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditiesapparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipmentfood and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Exports - partnersGermany 8.6%, Iraq 7.1%, Iran 6.5%, UK 5.7%, UAE 5.4%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.2%, France 4.1% (2012)Turkey 11.6%, Italy 9.9%, Germany 6.5%, Bulgaria 4.9% (2013 est.)
Imports$242.9 billion (2013 est.)
$228.6 billion (2012 est.)
$50.58 billion (2013 est.)
$53.53 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipmentmachinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partnersRussia 11.3%, Germany 9%, China 9%, US 6%, Italy 5.6%, Iran 5.1% (2012)Russia 13.8%, Germany 9.5%, Italy 7.9%, Iraq 7.8%, Netherlands 4.7%, France 4.5%, China 4.5% (2013 est.)
Debt - external$359.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$336.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$568.7 billion (30 September 2013 est.)
$577.2 billion (2012)
Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
1.899 (2013 est.)
1.796 (2012 est.)
1.5028 (2010 est.)
1.55 (2009)
1.3179 (2008)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt36.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
37.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
175% of GDP (2013 est.)
156.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$117.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$119.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.255 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.255 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$58.35 billion (2013 est.)
-$47.75 billion (2012 est.)
$2.021 billion (2013 est.)
-$5.933 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$821.8 billion (2013 est.)$243.3 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$194.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$181.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$40.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$37.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$33.44 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$30.94 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$43.31 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$43.46 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$308.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$201.8 billion (31 December 2011)
$306.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$44.58 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$33.65 billion (31 December 2011)
$NA (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.25% (31 December 2011)
15% (22 December 2009)
0.75% (31 December 2013)
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate18.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
19% (31 December 2012 est.)
7.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
7.33% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$549.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$552.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$325.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$343.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$80.72 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$85.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$112.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$116.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$383.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$405.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$247.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$250 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.2% of GDP (2013 est.)43.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.1% of GDP (2013 est.)-4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 17.5%
male: 16.3%
female: 19.9% (2012)
total: 55.3%
male: 48.4%
female: 63.2% (2012)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71%
government consumption: 15.4%
investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 26.6%
imports of goods and services: -32.5%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 72.7%
government consumption: 17.4%
investment in fixed capital: 12.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -31.7%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving19.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
20.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
23.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
6.2% of GDP (2011 est.)


Electricity - production217.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)56.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - consumption170.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)56.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - exports1.49 billion kWh (2012 est.)4.122 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports4.362 billion kWh (2012 est.)5.946 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production56,650 bbl/day (2012 est.)7,497 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil - imports338,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)405,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)17,020 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - proved reserves270.4 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)10 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves6.173 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)991.1 million cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - production632 million cu m (2012 est.)6 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption38.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)4.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - exports600 million cu m (2012 est.)0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports45.92 billion cu m (2012 est.)4.376 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity49.52 million kW (2010 est.)15.12 million kW (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production418,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)462,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption706,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)343,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports107,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)183,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports301,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)133,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy296.3 million Mt (2011 est.)85.6 million Mt (2012 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use13.86 million (2012)5.461 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular67.68 million (2012)13.354 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2010)
general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region)
Internet country code.tr.gr
Internet users27.233 million (2009)4.971 million (2009)
Internet hosts7.093 million (2012)3.201 million (2012)
Broadcast mediaTurkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)Broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about ten of which broadcast nation-wide; 1 government owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations (2014)


Railwaystotal: 12,008 km
standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2012)
total: 2,548 km
standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
Roadwaystotal: 385,748 km
paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
total: 116,960 km
paved: 41,357 km (includes 1,091 km of expressways)
unpaved: 75,603 km (2010)
Waterways1,200 km (2010)6 km (the 6 km long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2013)gas 1,329 km; oil 94 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)
LNG terminal (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
major seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
oil/gas terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi
LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa
Merchant marinetotal: 629
by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
total: 860
by type: bulk carrier 262, cargo 49, carrier 1, chemical tanker 68, container 35, liquefied gas 13, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 302, roll on/roll off 14
foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 17, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 3, Italy 5, UK 6, US 8)
registered in other countries: 2,459 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas 225, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 8, Brazil 1, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 2, Cayman Islands 9, Comoros 4, Curacao 1, Cyprus 201, Dominica 4, Egypt 8, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 62, Italy 7, Jamaica 3, Liberia 505, Malta 469, Marshall Islands 408, Mexico 2, Moldova 1, Panama 379, Philippines 5, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 42, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 22, UAE 3, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 3, Venezuela 4, unknown 10) (2010)
Airports98 (2013)77 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 91
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 68
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m:
2 (2013)
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m:
7 (2013)
Heliports20 (2013)9 (2013)


Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 15 months conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates; conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; under a law passed in November 2011, men aged 30 and older, or who have worked 3 years in foreign countries, may pay $16,200 in lieu of mandatory military service (2013)19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 18 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation is 1 year for the Army and 9 months for the Air Force and Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2014)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 21,079,077
females age 16-49: 20,558,696 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 2,485,389
females age 16-49: 2,469,854 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 17,664,510
females age 16-49: 17,340,816 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 2,032,378
females age 16-49: 2,016,552 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 700,079
female: 670,328 (2010 est.)
male: 52,754
female: 49,485 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.31% of GDP (2012)
2.28% of GDP (2011)
2.31% of GDP (2010)
1.72% of GDP (2012)
2.31% of GDP (2011)
2.63% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valleyGreece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy
Illicit drugskey transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controlsa gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,467 (Iraq) (2013); 789,469 (Syria) (2014)
IDPs: 954,000-1.2 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2012)
stateless persons: 780 (2012)
stateless persons: 154 (2012)

Source: CIA Factbook