Home

Turkey vs. Georgia

Introduction

TurkeyGeorgia
Background"Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or ""Father of the Turks."" Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a ""post-modern coup"" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the ""Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,"" which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years.
From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.
"
"The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the ""Rose Revolution,"" new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.
Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Georgian Dream's Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI remained Prime Minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. These changes in leadership represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.
"

Geography

TurkeyGeorgia
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
42 00 N, 43 30 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Asia
Areatotal: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Texas
slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 2,816 km
border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
total: 1,814 km
border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
Coastline7,200 km
310 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,132 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
mean elevation: 1,432 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land useagricultural land: 49.7%
arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%
forest: 14.9%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 35.5%
arable land 5.8%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 27.9%
forest: 39.4%
other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land52,150 sq km (2012)
4,330 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
earthquakes
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
Population distributionthe most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the western Mediterranean coast, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
settlement coincides closely to the central valley, with emphasis on the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest

Demographics

TurkeyGeorgia
Population80,274,604 (July 2016 est.)
4,928,052 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.08% (male 10,303,153/female 9,833,713)
15-24 years: 16.11% (male 6,605,634/female 6,329,921)
25-54 years: 43.15% (male 17,541,137/female 17,094,141)
55-64 years: 8.36% (male 3,335,021/female 3,374,965)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,603,655/female 3,253,264) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 17.91% (male 463,526/female 419,334)
15-24 years: 12.61% (male 326,675/female 294,912)
25-54 years: 40.93% (male 980,024/female 1,037,044)
55-64 years: 12.77% (male 282,067/female 347,287)
65 years and over: 15.77% (male 304,668/female 472,515) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.5 years
male: 30.1 years
female: 31 years (2016 est.)
total: 38 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 40.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.9% (2016 est.)
-0.05% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.8 years
male: 72.5 years
female: 77.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 76.2 years
male: 72.1 years
female: 80.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
Ethnic groupsTurkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 7-12% (2016 est.)
Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
9,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 98.4%
female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 17 years
female: 16 years (2013)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.8% of GDP (2013)
2% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 85.5% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 14.5% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.2% of population
rural: 75.9% of population
total: 86.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.8% of population
rural: 24.1% of population
total: 13.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationIstanbul 14.164 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.75 million; Izmir 3.04 million; Bursa 1.923 million; Adana 1.83 million; Gaziantep 1.528 million (2015)
TBILISI (capital) 1.147 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate16 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.9% (2014)
1.1% (2009)
Health expenditures5.4% of GDP (2014)
7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.75 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
4.78 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate29.4% (2014)
22.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 321,866
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 6-14 (2006 est.)
total number: 121,659
percentage: 18% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.3 years (2010 est.)
24.4 years
note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73.5% (2013)
53.4%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.7
youth dependency ratio: 25.2
elderly dependency ratio: 20.4
potential support ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)

Government

TurkeyGeorgia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Turks""
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation ""gurgan"" meaning ""Land of the Wolves""; the native name ""Sak'art'velo"" means ""Land of the Kartvelians"" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Tbilisi
geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)
regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti
city: Tbilisi
autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia
Independence29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)
Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982
amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one-third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary GNA session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request GNA reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority GNA vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995
amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one-half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three-fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2013 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binali YILDIRIM (since 22 May 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Nurettin CANIKLI (since 24 May 2016), Veysi KAYNAK (since 24 May 2016), Mehmet SIMSEK (since 24 November 2015), Tugrul TURKES (since 29 August 2014), Numan KURTULMUS (since 29 August 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president {until the next parliamentary or presidential election following the April 2017 referendum)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%
chief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI (since 30 December 2015); First Deputy Prime Minister Dimitry KUMSISHVILI
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president
election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE (UNM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE 10.2%, other 6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats (will increase to 600 with next election following the April 2017 referendum); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next scheduled for 3 November 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.5%, CHP 25.3%, MHP 11.9%, HDP 10.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AKP 317, CHP 134, MHP 40, HDP 59; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 October and 30 October 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.7%, UNM 27.1%, Alliance of Patriots 5%, other 19.2%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 115, UNM 27, Alliance of Patriots 6, IWSG 1, independent 1
Judicial branchhighest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), a 22-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms
subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts, peace courts; military courts; state security courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit
highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges, and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Onder AKSAKAL]
Felicity Party or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
Patriotic Party or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Serpil KEMALBAY]; note - DEMIRTAS was detained by Turkish authorities in November 2016 over his alleged links to the PKK
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
True Path Party or DYP [Cetin OZACIRGOZ]
Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
European Georgia [Davit BAKRADZE]
Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI]
Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]
Free Democrats (FD) [Tamar KEKENADZE]
Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
State for the People Party [formerly Paata BURCHULADZE ]
United Democratic Movement [Nino BURJANADZE]
United National Movement or UNM [Nika MELIA]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Saziye KOSE, co-chairs]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Kani BEKO]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations or TISK [Kudret ONEN]
Turkish Confederation of Labor Unions or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD Erol BILECIK]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
other: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Davit BAKRADZE (since November 2016)
chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador John R. BASS (since 20 October 2014)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana
chief of mission: Ambassador Ian C. KELLY (since 17 September 2015)
embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century
National anthem"name: ""Istiklal Marsi"" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
"
"name: ""Tavisupleba"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)
note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas ""Abesalom da Eteri"" and ""Daisi"" was adopted
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)star and crescent; national colors: red, white
Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

TurkeyGeorgia
Economy - overviewTurkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

Since 2014, productivity and growth has slowed to reveal persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s low domestic savings and large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. The economy contracted in the third quarter of 2016 for the first time since 2009, in part due to a sharp decline in the tourism sector, and growth is likely to remain below potential in 2017. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and elevated inflation, which is likely to increase in 2017 given the Turkish lira’s recent depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 32% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.
Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs.

Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.

Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sunk to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in 2010-16, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment has also remained high.

The country is pinning its hopes for renewed growth on a continued effort to liberalize the economy by reducing regulation, taxes, and corruption in order to attract foreign investment, with a focus on hydropower, agriculture, tourism, and textiles production. Georgia has historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. Georgia plans to improve the domestic investment environment through a four-year economic plan targeting the tax system, educational standards, infrastructure, and governance. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending, strengthening anti-trust policy, and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia signed an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. Georgia is also seeking to expand trade with China, concluding substantive negotiations on a trade agreement in October 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.698 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.65 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.555 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$37.27 billion (2016 est.)
$36.15 billion (2015 est.)
$35.17 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2015 est.)
4.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$21,100 (2016 est.)
$20,700 (2015 est.)
$20,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$10,100 (2016 est.)
$9,700 (2015 est.)
$9,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.1%
industry: 28.5%
services: 65.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.2%
industry: 21.6%
services: 68.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.9% (2015 est.)
9.2% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.5% (2016 est.)
7.7% (2015 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
Labor force30.54 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2016 est.)
2.022 million (2015 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 18.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 54.9% (2016)
agriculture: 55.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate10.9% (2016 est.)
9.2% (2014 est.)
12.1% (2016 est.)
12% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.2 (2010)
43.6 (2003)
40.1 (2014)
46 (2011)
Budgetrevenues: $146.4 billion
expenditures: $151 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $4.266 billion
expenditures: $4.541 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
Industrial production growth rate1.3% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
Exports$143.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.6 billion (2014 est.)
$2.926 billion (2016 est.)
$3.043 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesapparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
Exports - partnersGermany 9.3%, UK 7.3%, Iraq 5.9%, Italy 4.8%, US 4.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Azerbaijan 10.9%, Bulgaria 9.7%, Turkey 8.4%, Armenia 8.2%, Russia 7.4%, China 5.7%, US 4.7%, Uzbekistan 4.4% (2015)
Imports$142.5 billion (2016 est.)
$207.2 billion (2015 est.)
$6.803 billion (2016 est.)
$7.73 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partnersChina 12%, Germany 10.3%, Russia 9.8%, US 5.4%, Italy 5.1% (2015)
Turkey 17.2%, Russia 8.1%, China 7.6%, Azerbaijan 7%, Ireland 5.9%, Ukraine 5.9%, Germany 5.6% (2015)
Debt - external$410.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
3.5 (2016 est.)
2.72 (2015 est.)
2.72 (2014 est.)
2.1885 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
laris (GEL) per US dollar -
2.18 (2016 est.)
2.2694 (2015 est.)
2.2694 (2014 est.)
1.7657 (2013 est.)
1.65 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intra-governmental debt or social funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.855 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.521 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$32.6 billion (2016 est.)
-$32.12 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.764 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.68 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$856.8 billion (2016 est.)
$14.46 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$198.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.773 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$188.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$195.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.155 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$795.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.25% (31 December 2011)
15% (22 December 2009)
6.5% (7 Setpember 2016)
7% (23 September 2015)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.66% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
12.49% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$611.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$581.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.946 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$119.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$107.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.165 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.063 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$474.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$425.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.402 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 17.8%
male: 16.6%
female: 20.2% (2014 est.)
total: 35.6%
male: 35.3%
female: 36.4% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 14.7%
investment in fixed capital: 29.8%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -23.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 66.9%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 26.8%
investment in inventories: 3.8%
exports of goods and services: 38.1%
imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
15% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TurkeyGeorgia
Electricity - production261.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
11.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption217.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
12.44 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports2.96 billion kWh (2015 est.)
560 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports7.41 billion kWh (2015 est.)
478.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production50,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
930.7 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports503,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,086 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports62,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,535 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves334.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
35 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.708 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production398.7 million cu m (2015 est.)
5.663 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption48 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.297 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports623.9 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports48.43 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity73.15 million kW (2015 est.)
3.718 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels68% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
39.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants25.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
60.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production432,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
269 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption498,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
20,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports217,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2,574 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports300,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
31,190 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy319 million Mt (2013 est.)
7 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

TurkeyGeorgia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 11,493,057
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 950,167
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 73.639 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.551 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 105 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2015)
general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country
domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi
international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2015)
Internet country code.tr
.ge
Internet userstotal: 42.681 million
percent of population: 53.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.227 million
percent of population: 45.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaTurkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
Tbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2, as well as the Batumi-based Adjara TV (also a part of GPB); all three are funded from the state budget; there are a number of independent commercial TV stations, including but not limited to Rustavi 2, Imedi, Maestro, Kavkasia, GDS, and TV1; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based TV station called Unanimity; 26 regional TV broadcasters across Georgia are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters (GARB) that seeks to strengthen the regional media's capacities and to distribute regional products; a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations (2016)

Transportation

TurkeyGeorgia
Railwaystotal: 12,008 km
standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)
total: 1,363 km
broad gauge: 1,326 km 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 385,754 km
paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
total: 19,109 km
paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)
Pipelinesgas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2016)
gas 1,596 km; oil 1,175 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
Merchant marinetotal: 629
by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
total: 142
by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 95 (Bulgaria 1, China 10, Egypt 7, Hong Kong 3, Israel 1, Italy 2, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Romania 7, Russia 6, Syria 24, Turkey 14, UAE 2, UK 5, Ukraine 10, US 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
Airports98 (2013)
22 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 91
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports20 (2013)
2 (2013)

Military

TurkeyGeorgia
Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
Georgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces
note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense (2015)
Military service age and obligation21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service (in case of mobilization, up to 65 years of age); 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12-month conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)
18 to 27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.69% of GDP (2016)
1.67% of GDP (2015)
1.7% of GDP (2014)
1.75% of GDP (2013)
1.76% of GDP (2012)
2.23% of GDP (2016)
2.34% of GDP (2015)
2.26% of GDP (2014)
2.53% of GDP (2013)
3.1% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TurkeyGeorgia
Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
Illicit drugskey transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 30,398 (Iraq); 6,966 (Iran) (2016); 3,049,879 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 1.108 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2016)
stateless persons: 780 (2016)
IDPs: 208,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2016)
stateless persons: 250 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook