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Turkey vs. Azerbaijan

Introduction

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Background"Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or ""Father of the Turks."" Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a ""post-modern coup"" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the ""Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,"" which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years.
From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.
"
Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan reignited their dispute over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated militarily after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum and approved extending presidential terms from 5 to 7 years in 2016, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.

Geography

TurkeyAzerbaijan
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
40 30 N, 47 30 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Asia
Areatotal: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Texas
about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundariestotal: 2,816 km
border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
total: 2,468 km
border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
Coastline7,200 km
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
dry, semiarid steppe
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,132 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
mean elevation: 384 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 49.7%
arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%
forest: 14.9%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 57.6%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1%
forest: 11.3%
other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land52,150 sq km (2012)
14,277 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
droughts
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Population distributionthe most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the western Mediterranean coast, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly evenly distributed population

Demographics

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Population80,274,604 (July 2016 est.)
9,872,765 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.08% (male 10,303,153/female 9,833,713)
15-24 years: 16.11% (male 6,605,634/female 6,329,921)
25-54 years: 43.15% (male 17,541,137/female 17,094,141)
55-64 years: 8.36% (male 3,335,021/female 3,374,965)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,603,655/female 3,253,264) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 22.82% (male 1,204,976/female 1,047,737)
15-24 years: 15.77% (male 812,537/female 744,538)
25-54 years: 45.28% (male 2,188,683/female 2,281,242)
55-64 years: 9.64% (male 439,566/female 512,118)
65 years and over: 6.5% (male 245,144/female 396,224) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.5 years
male: 30.1 years
female: 31 years (2016 est.)
total: 30.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 32.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.9% (2016 est.)
0.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.8 years
male: 72.5 years
female: 77.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.5 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 75.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.9 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.17% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groupsTurkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 7-12% (2016 est.)
Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4%
note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
10,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 98.4%
female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 17 years
female: 16 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.8% of GDP (2013)
2.6% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.7% of population
rural: 77.8% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.3% of population
rural: 22.2% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 85.5% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 14.5% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.6% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 89.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.4% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationIstanbul 14.164 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.75 million; Izmir 3.04 million; Bursa 1.923 million; Adana 1.83 million; Gaziantep 1.528 million (2015)
BAKU (capital) 2.374 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate16 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.9% (2014)
4.9% (2013)
Health expenditures5.4% of GDP (2014)
6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.75 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate29.4% (2014)
22.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 321,866
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 6-14 (2006 est.)
total number: 144,397
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.3 years (2010 est.)
23.5 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73.5% (2013)
51.1% (2006)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 38
youth dependency ratio: 30.3
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8
potential support ratio: 12.9 (2015 est.)

Government

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Turks""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as ""Land of Fire"" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)
Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982
amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one-third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary GNA session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request GNA reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority GNA vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binali YILDIRIM (since 22 May 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Nurettin CANIKLI (since 24 May 2016), Veysi KAYNAK (since 24 May 2016), Mehmet SIMSEK (since 24 November 2015), Tugrul TURKES (since 29 August 2014), Numan KURTULMUS (since 29 August 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president {until the next parliamentary or presidential election following the April 2017 referendum)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006); note - RASIZADE was previously prime minister from 20 July 1996 to 4 August 2003
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum will expand presidential terms from 5 to 7 years when it formally takes effect; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the September 2016 referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 84.5%, Jamil HASANLI (National Council of Democratic Forces) 5.5%, other 10%
note: OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats (will increase to 600 with next election following the April 2017 referendum); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next scheduled for 3 November 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.5%, CHP 25.3%, MHP 11.9%, HDP 10.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AKP 317, CHP 134, MHP 40, HDP 59; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 72, CSP 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity 1, Unity Party 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Motherland 1, Civil Unity 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, independent 41
Judicial branchhighest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), a 22-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms
subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts, peace courts; military courts; state security courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Onder AKSAKAL]
Felicity Party or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
Patriotic Party or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Serpil KEMALBAY]; note - DEMIRTAS was detained by Turkish authorities in November 2016 over his alleged links to the PKK
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
True Path Party or DYP [Cetin OZACIRGOZ]
Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
National Renaissance Party
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Saziye KOSE, co-chairs]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Kani BEKO]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations or TISK [Kudret ONEN]
Turkish Confederation of Labor Unions or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD Erol BILECIK]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
D18 [Ruslan IZZETLI]]
Ireli Youth Movement [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
N!DA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Ulvi HASANLI]
Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in prison since 2013)]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador John R. BASS (since 20 October 2014)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 16 February 2015)
embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
National anthem"name: ""Istiklal Marsi"" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
"
"name: ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent; national colors: red, white
flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Economy - overviewTurkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

Since 2014, productivity and growth has slowed to reveal persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s low domestic savings and large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. The economy contracted in the third quarter of 2016 for the first time since 2009, in part due to a sharp decline in the tourism sector, and growth is likely to remain below potential in 2017. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and elevated inflation, which is likely to increase in 2017 given the Turkish lira’s recent depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 32% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.
Prior to the decline in the global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports, and some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. Declining oil prices caused a 3.8 % contraction in GDP in 2016, reinforced by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline has been accompanied by higher inflation and a weakened banking sector in the aftermath of the two sharp currency devaluations in 2015.

Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors, but the government has made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and with the “ASAN” one-stop window concept for government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports, mainly from the agricultural sector, for example with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the United States, and others.

Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to implement export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the President approved a strategic roadmap that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, and tourism.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.698 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.65 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.555 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$165.5 billion (2016 est.)
$172 billion (2015 est.)
$170.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2014 est.)
-3.8% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$21,100 (2016 est.)
$20,700 (2015 est.)
$20,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$17,700 (2016 est.)
$18,300 (2015 est.)
$18,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.1%
industry: 28.5%
services: 65.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 7.2%
industry: 49.6%
services: 43.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.9% (2015 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.5% (2016 est.)
7.7% (2015 est.)
12.4% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force30.54 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2016 est.)
4.961 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 18.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 54.9% (2016)
agriculture: 37%
industry: 14.3%
services: 48.9% (2015)
Unemployment rate10.9% (2016 est.)
9.2% (2014 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.2 (2010)
43.6 (2003)
33.7 (2008)
36.5 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $146.4 billion
expenditures: $151 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $10.54 billion
expenditures: $11.59 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate1.3% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Exports$143.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.6 billion (2014 est.)
$12.48 billion (2016 est.)
$15.59 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesapparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
Exports - partnersGermany 9.3%, UK 7.3%, Iraq 5.9%, Italy 4.8%, US 4.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Italy 19.7%, Germany 10.7%, France 7.5%, Israel 7%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Indonesia 4.2% (2015)
Imports$142.5 billion (2016 est.)
$207.2 billion (2015 est.)
$8.532 billion (2016 est.)
$9.774 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partnersChina 12%, Germany 10.3%, Russia 9.8%, US 5.4%, Italy 5.1% (2015)
Russia 15.6%, Turkey 12.7%, US 9.2%, Germany 7.5%, Italy 6.4%, Japan 6.1%, UK 6%, China 5.6% (2015)
Debt - external$410.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
3.5 (2016 est.)
2.72 (2015 est.)
2.72 (2014 est.)
2.1885 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
1.526 (2016 est.)
1.0246 (2015 est.)
1.0246 (2014 est.)
0.7844 (2013 est.)
0.79 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
20.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.453 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$32.6 billion (2016 est.)
-$32.12 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.42 billion (2016 est.)
-$222 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$856.8 billion (2016 est.)
$37.58 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$198.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$72.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$66.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$16.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$188.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$195.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate5.25% (31 December 2011)
15% (22 December 2009)
15% (10 March 2017)
15% (14 September 2016)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.66% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.86% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$611.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$581.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$119.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$107.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.194 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.612 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$474.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$425.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$21.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$21.57 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 17.8%
male: 16.6%
female: 20.2% (2014 est.)
total: 13.8%
male: 12%
female: 15.6% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 14.7%
investment in fixed capital: 29.8%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -23.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 56.2%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 27.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 47.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
15% of GDP (2014 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
36.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Electricity - production261.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
24.69 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption217.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
17.62 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports2.96 billion kWh (2015 est.)
265 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports7.41 billion kWh (2015 est.)
107.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production50,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
842,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports503,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports62,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
720,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves334.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.708 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.55 trillion cu m (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - production398.7 million cu m (2015 est.)
29.37 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption48 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports623.9 million cu m (2015 est.)
8.145 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports48.43 billion cu m (2015 est.)
450 million cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity73.15 million kW (2015 est.)
7.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels68% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
85% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants25.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production432,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
139,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption498,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
104,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports217,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
37,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports300,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2,249 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy319 million Mt (2013 est.)
35 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 11,493,057
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,796,027
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 73.639 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2015 est.)
total: 10.697 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 105 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2015)
general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with three providers in 2017
domestic: teledensity of 18 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 109 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan)
international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2017)
Internet country code.tr
.az
Internet userstotal: 42.681 million
percent of population: 53.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.531 million
percent of population: 77% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaTurkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)

Transportation

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Railwaystotal: 12,008 km
standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)
total: 2,944.3 km
broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 385,754 km
paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
total: 52,942 km
paved: 26,789 km
unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
Pipelinesgas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2016)
condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
Merchant marinetotal: 629
by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
total: 104
by type: tankers 34, universal dry-cargo 20, ferries 13, roll on/roll off 2, auxillary ships 35
foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2017)
Airports98 (2013)
37 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 91
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 7
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports20 (2013)
1 (2012)

Military

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service (in case of mobilization, up to 65 years of age); 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12-month conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)
18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.69% of GDP (2016)
1.67% of GDP (2015)
1.7% of GDP (2014)
1.75% of GDP (2013)
1.76% of GDP (2012)
5.61% of GDP (2015)
4.56% of GDP (2014)
4.58% of GDP (2013)
4.72% of GDP (2012)
4.67% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TurkeyAzerbaijan
Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Illicit drugskey transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 30,398 (Iraq); 6,966 (Iran) (2016); 3,049,879 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 1.108 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2016)
stateless persons: 780 (2016)
IDPs: 582,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook