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Turkey vs. Armenia

Introduction

TurkeyArmenia
Background"Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or ""Father of the Turks."" Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a ""post-modern coup"" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the ""Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,"" which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years.
From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.
"
Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.
Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a trilateral cease-fire between Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Nagorno-Karabakh took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions - approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Geography

TurkeyArmenia
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Asia
Areatotal: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
total: 29,743 sq km
land: 28,203 sq km
water: 1,540 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Texas
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 2,816 km
border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
total: 1,570 km
border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
Coastline7,200 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,132 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
mean elevation: 1,792 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 49.7%
arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%
forest: 14.9%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 59.7%
arable land 15.8%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 42%
forest: 9.1%
other: 31.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land52,150 sq km (2012)
2,740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Population distributionthe most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the western Mediterranean coast, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country

Demographics

TurkeyArmenia
Population80,274,604 (July 2016 est.)
3,051,250 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.08% (male 10,303,153/female 9,833,713)
15-24 years: 16.11% (male 6,605,634/female 6,329,921)
25-54 years: 43.15% (male 17,541,137/female 17,094,141)
55-64 years: 8.36% (male 3,335,021/female 3,374,965)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,603,655/female 3,253,264) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 19% (male 308,701/female 271,028)
15-24 years: 13.58% (male 213,203/female 201,291)
25-54 years: 43.46% (male 640,070/female 685,958)
55-64 years: 12.96% (male 180,700/female 214,834)
65 years and over: 10.99% (male 134,330/female 201,135) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.5 years
male: 30.1 years
female: 31 years (2016 est.)
total: 34.6 years
male: 32.8 years
female: 36.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.9% (2016 est.)
-0.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.8 years
male: 72.5 years
female: 77.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.6 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 78.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.64 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.2% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groupsTurkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 7-12% (2016 est.)
Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
3,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 98.4%
female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 17 years
female: 16 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.8% of GDP (2013)
2.8% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 62.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 85.5% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 14.5% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 78.2% of population
total: 89.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 21.8% of population
total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationIstanbul 14.164 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.75 million; Izmir 3.04 million; Bursa 1.923 million; Adana 1.83 million; Gaziantep 1.528 million (2015)
YEREVAN (capital) 1,044 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate16 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.9% (2014)
5.3% (2010)
Health expenditures5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.75 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.8 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate29.4% (2014)
19.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 321,866
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 6-14 (2006 est.)
total number: 19,596
percentage: 4%
note: data represent children ages 7-17 (2007 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.3 years (2010 est.)
24.1 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73.5% (2013)
54.9% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 41.3
youth dependency ratio: 26
elderly dependency ratio: 15.3
potential support ratio: 6.5 (2015 est.)

Government

TurkeyArmenia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Turks""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Independence29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)
Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982
amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one-third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary GNA session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request GNA reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority GNA vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2007, 2008, last in 2015
note: a 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binali YILDIRIM (since 22 May 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Nurettin CANIKLI (since 24 May 2016), Veysi KAYNAK (since 24 May 2016), Mehmet SIMSEK (since 24 November 2015), Tugrul TURKES (since 29 August 2014), Numan KURTULMUS (since 29 August 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president {until the next parliamentary or presidential election following the April 2017 referendum)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%
chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Karen KARAPETYAN (since 13 September 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority support in the National Congress; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Congress refuses to accept their program
election results: Serzh SARGSIAN reelected president in one round; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN (RPA) 58.6%, Raffi HOVHANNISIAN (Heritage Party) 36.7%, Hrant BAGRATIAN (ANM) 2.2%, other 2.5%
note: constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 will transform the government to a parliamentary system by 2018; for the scheduled February 2018 election, the president will be indirectly elected by parliament and will serve a single 7-year term; following the 2018 election, the prime minister will be elected based on majority support of the National Assembly
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats (will increase to 600 with next election following the April 2017 referendum); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next scheduled for 3 November 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.5%, CHP 25.3%, MHP 11.9%, HDP 10.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AKP 317, CHP 134, MHP 40, HDP 59; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, currently 105; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in spring of 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPA 49.2%, Tsarukyan Alliance 27.4%, Yelk (Way Out) 7.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 6.6%, other 9%; seats by party - RPA 58, Tsarukyan Alliance 31, Yelk (Way Out) 9, ARF (Dashnak) 7
Judicial branchhighest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), a 22-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms
subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts, peace courts; military courts; state security courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit
highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court chairman and organized into the criminal chamber and a civil and administrative chamber, each with a chamber chairman and 2 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by National Assembly; judges of both courts can serve until retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 2 Courts of Appeal (for civil cases and for criminal and military cases); district courts; Administrative Court
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Onder AKSAKAL]
Felicity Party or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
Patriotic Party or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Serpil KEMALBAY]; note - DEMIRTAS was detained by Turkish authorities in November 2016 over his alleged links to the PKK
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
True Path Party or DYP [Cetin OZACIRGOZ]
"Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]
Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF (""Dashnak"" Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]
Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]
People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]
Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]
Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
Tsarukyan Alliance [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Yelk (Way Out) Alliance [Edmon Marukyan]
"
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Saziye KOSE, co-chairs]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Kani BEKO]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations or TISK [Kudret ONEN]
Turkish Confederation of Labor Unions or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD Erol BILECIK]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Grigor HOVHANNISSIAN (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador John R. BASS (since 20 October 2014)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILLS (since 13 February 2015)
embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it
National anthem"name: ""Istiklal Marsi"" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
"
"name: ""Mer Hayrenik"" (Our Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN
note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent; national colors: red, white
Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

TurkeyArmenia
Economy - overviewTurkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.
Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

Since 2014, productivity and growth has slowed to reveal persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s low domestic savings and large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. The economy contracted in the third quarter of 2016 for the first time since 2009, in part due to a sharp decline in the tourism sector, and growth is likely to remain below potential in 2017. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and elevated inflation, which is likely to increase in 2017 given the Turkish lira’s recent depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 32% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.
Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agro industrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been largely ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to raise its economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from two of its neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to deteriorations in the global commodity markets and the economic challenges in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support, as most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 7-8% of GDP. Armenia joined the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015, but has expressed interest in expanding its economic ties with the European Union as well, and in March 2017 an EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement was initiated. Armenia’s rising government debt is leading Yerevan to tighten its fiscal policies – the debt almost reached the debt to GDP threshold set by national legislation as of March 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.698 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.65 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.555 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$26.3 billion (2016 est.)
$25.73 billion (2015 est.)
$24.97 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2014 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
3.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$21,100 (2016 est.)
$20,700 (2015 est.)
$20,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$8,900 (2016 est.)
$8,500 (2015 est.)
$8,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.1%
industry: 28.5%
services: 65.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 19.6%
industry: 29.1%
services: 51.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.9% (2015 est.)
32% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.5% (2016 est.)
7.7% (2015 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force30.54 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2016 est.)
1.559 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 18.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 54.9% (2016)
agriculture: 36.3%
industry: 17%
services: 46.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate10.9% (2016 est.)
9.2% (2014 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
17.7% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.2 (2010)
43.6 (2003)
31.5 (2014)
31.5 (2013 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $146.4 billion
expenditures: $151 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.445 billion
expenditures: $2.969 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing
Industrial production growth rate1.3% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
fruit (especially grapes and apricots), vegetables; livestock
Exports$143.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.6 billion (2014 est.)
$1.678 billion (2016 est.)
$1.626 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesapparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
unwrought copper, pig iron, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, brandy, cigarettes, energy
Exports - partnersGermany 9.3%, UK 7.3%, Iraq 5.9%, Italy 4.8%, US 4.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Russia 15.2%, China 11.1%, Germany 9.8%, Iraq 8.8%, Georgia 7.8%, Canada 7.6%, Bulgaria 5.3%, Iran 5.3% (2015)
Imports$142.5 billion (2016 est.)
$207.2 billion (2015 est.)
$2.638 billion (2016 est.)
$2.78 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars
Imports - partnersChina 12%, Germany 10.3%, Russia 9.8%, US 5.4%, Italy 5.1% (2015)
Russia 29.1%, China 9.7%, Germany 6.2%, Iran 6.1%, Italy 4.6%, Turkey 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$410.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.554 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
3.5 (2016 est.)
2.72 (2015 est.)
2.72 (2014 est.)
2.1885 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
drams (AMD) per US dollar -
492.7 (2016 est.)
477.92 (2015 est.)
477.92 (2014 est.)
415.92 (2013 est.)
401.76 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
53.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
48.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.512 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.775 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$32.6 billion (2016 est.)
-$32.12 billion (2015 est.)
-$302 million (2016 est.)
-$279 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$856.8 billion (2016 est.)
$10.75 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$198.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.169 billion (2015 est.)
$4.087 billion (2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$228 million (2015 est.)
$215 million (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$188.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$195.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$139.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.25% (31 December 2011)
15% (22 December 2009)
6.5% (14 December 2016)
10.5% (10 February 2015)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.66% (31 December 2015 est.)
17.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
17.59% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: average lending rate on loans up to one year
Stock of domestic credit$611.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$581.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.307 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.022 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$119.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$107.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.178 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.149 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$474.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$425.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.949 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.779 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 17.8%
male: 16.6%
female: 20.2% (2014 est.)
total: 36.1%
male: 31.8%
female: 41.5% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 14.7%
investment in fixed capital: 29.8%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -23.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 31.6%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
15% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TurkeyArmenia
Electricity - production261.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
7.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption217.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports2.96 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports7.41 billion kWh (2015 est.)
26 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production50,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports503,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports62,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves334.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.708 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production398.7 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption48 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports623.9 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports48.43 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.061 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity73.15 million kW (2015 est.)
4.1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels68% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
32.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants25.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
33.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
34.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production432,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption498,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
8,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports217,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports300,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
7,809 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy319 million Mt (2013 est.)
12 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

TurkeyArmenia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 11,493,057
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 551,366
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 73.639 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.442 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 105 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2015)
general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004, and a second and third provider began operations in 2005 and 2009 respectively
domestic: reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
Internet country code.tr
.am
Internet userstotal: 42.681 million
percent of population: 53.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.78 million
percent of population: 58.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaTurkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2017)

Transportation

TurkeyArmenia
Railwaystotal: 12,008 km
standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)
total: 780 km
broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified)
note: 726 km operational (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 385,754 km
paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
total: 7,792 km (2013)
Pipelinesgas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2016)
gas (high and medium pressure) 3,838 km (2017)
Airports98 (2013)
11 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 91
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Military

TurkeyArmenia
Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
"Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Force and Air Defense; ""Nagorno-Karabakh Republic"": Nagorno-Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)
"
Military service age and obligation21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service (in case of mobilization, up to 65 years of age); 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12-month conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)
18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.69% of GDP (2016)
1.67% of GDP (2015)
1.7% of GDP (2014)
1.75% of GDP (2013)
1.76% of GDP (2012)
4% of GDP (2016)
4.25% of GDP (2015)
3.94% of GDP (2014)
4% of GDP (2013)
3.58% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TurkeyArmenia
Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government
Illicit drugskey transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 30,398 (Iraq); 6,966 (Iran) (2016); 3,049,879 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 1.108 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2016)
stateless persons: 780 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 14,626 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2016)
IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2016)
stateless persons: 512 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook