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Tunisia vs. Libya

Introduction

TunisiaLibya
Background"Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in convincing the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a ""national unity government"" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014. Beji CAID ESSEBSI was elected as the first president under the country's new constitution. In 2016, the new unity government continued to seek to balance political cohesion with economic and social pressures.
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The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli.
In October 2015, the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) to Libya, Bernardino LEON, brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and ex-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a two-year transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate de facto, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and ex-GNC-affiliated hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hampered the LPA’s implementation.

Geography

TunisiaLibya
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Geographic coordinates34 00 N, 9 00 E
25 00 N, 17 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km
total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Georgia
about 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundariestotal: 1,495 km
border countries (2): Algeria 1,034 km, Libya 461 km
total: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
Coastline1,148 km
1,770 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Climatetemperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrainmountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 246 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
mean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land useagricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 18.3%; permanent crops 15.4%; permanent pasture 31.1%
forest: 6.6%
other: 28.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,590 sq km (2012)
4,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issuestoxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notestrategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Population distributionthe overwhelming majority of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the south remains largely underpopulated
well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between the western city of Az Zawiyah (just west of Tripoli) and the eastern city of Darnah; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water

Demographics

TunisiaLibya
Population11,134,588 (July 2016 est.)
6,541,948 (July 2015 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2015) (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.02% (male 1,320,426/female 1,243,287)
15-24 years: 15.05% (male 840,907/female 834,320)
25-54 years: 44.52% (male 2,402,272/female 2,554,362)
55-64 years: 9.21% (male 520,305/female 505,612)
65 years and over: 8.2% (male 448,870/female 464,227) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 26.17% (male 875,430/female 836,272)
15-24 years: 17.41% (male 586,713/female 552,531)
25-54 years: 46.99% (male 1,613,168/female 1,460,987)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 174,023/female 167,072)
65 years and over: 4.22% (male 137,409/female 138,343) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 32.4 years
male: 31.9 years
female: 32.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 28.5 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.86% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
17.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.1 years
male: 74 years
female: 78.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 76.5 years
male: 74.7 years
female: 78.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.98 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
Ethnic groupsArab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,600 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsMuslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesArabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
note: despite having no official status, French plays a major role in the country and is spoken by about two-thirds of the population
Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 74.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
Education expenditures6.3% of GDP (2012)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 66.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.2% of population
total: 97.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.8% of population
total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 79.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 20.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTUNIS (capital) 1.993 million (2015)
TRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate62 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.3% (2012)
5.6% (2007)
Health expenditures7% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
3.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.1% (2014)
31.9% (2014)
Demographic profileThe Tunisian Government took steps in the 1960s to decrease population growth and gender inequality in order to improve socioeconomic development. Through its introduction of a national family planning program (the first in Africa) and by raising the legal age of marriage, Tunisia rapidly reduced its total fertility rate from about 7 children per woman in 1960 to 2 today. Unlike many of its North African and Middle Eastern neighbors, Tunisia will soon be shifting from being a youth-bulge country to having a transitional age structure, characterized by lower fertility and mortality rates, a slower population growth rate, a rising median age, and a longer average life expectancy.
Currently, the sizable young working-age population is straining Tunisia’s labor market and education and health care systems. Persistent high unemployment among Tunisia’s growing workforce, particularly its increasing number of university graduates and women, was a key factor in the uprisings that led to the overthrow of the BEN ALI regime in 2011. In the near term, Tunisia’s large number of jobless young, working-age adults; deficiencies in primary and secondary education; and the ongoing lack of job creation and skills mismatches could contribute to future unrest. In the longer term, a sustained low fertility rate will shrink future youth cohorts and alleviate demographic pressure on Tunisia’s labor market, but employment and education hurdles will still need to be addressed.
Tunisia has a history of labor emigration. In the 1960s, workers migrated to European countries to escape poor economic conditions and to fill Europe’s need for low-skilled labor in construction and manufacturing. The Tunisian Government signed bilateral labor agreements with France, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, and the Netherlands, with the expectation that Tunisian workers would eventually return home. At the same time, growing numbers of Tunisians headed to Libya, often illegally, to work in the expanding oil industry. In the mid-1970s, with European countries beginning to restrict immigration and Tunisian-Libyan tensions brewing, Tunisian economic migrants turned toward the Gulf countries. After mass expulsions from Libya in 1983, Tunisian migrants increasingly sought family reunification in Europe or moved illegally to southern Europe, while Tunisia itself developed into a transit point for sub-Saharan migrants heading to Europe.
Following the ousting of BEN ALI in 2011, the illegal migration of unemployed Tunisian youths to Italy and onward to France soared into the tens of thousands. Thousands more Tunisian and foreign workers escaping civil war in Libya flooded into Tunisia and joined the exodus. A readmission agreement signed by Italy and Tunisia in April 2011 helped stem the outflow, leaving Tunisia and international organizations to repatriate, resettle, or accommodate some 1 million Libyans and third-country nationals.
Despite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased inmigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, almost 350,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2016 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
Contraceptive prevalence rate62.5% (2011/12)
41.9% (2007)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 44.8
youth dependency ratio: 33.8
elderly dependency ratio: 11
potential support ratio: 9.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 45.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)

Government

TunisiaLibya
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Tunis
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
Government typeparliamentary republic
in transition
Capitalname: Tunis
geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
Independence20 March 1956 (from France)
24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014, signed by the president, prime minister, and Constituent Assembly speaker 27 January 2014
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-third of members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People; following review by the Constitutional Court, approval to proceed requires an absolute majority vote by the Assembly and final passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; the president can opt to submit an amendment to a referendum, which requires an absolute majority of votes cast for passage (2017)
history: previous 1951,1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
Suffrage18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
18 years of age, universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Beji CAID ESSEBSI (since 31 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Youssef CHAHED (since 27 August 2016)
cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly of the Representatives of the People
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 November and 21 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the prime minister is selected by the majority party or majority coalition and appointed by the president
election results: Beji CAID ESSEBSI elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Beji CAID ESSEBSI (Tunisia's Call) 55.7%, Moncef MARZOUKI (CPR) 44.3%
chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: new cabinet awaiting approval by the House of Representatives
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Representatives of the People or Nuwwab ash-Sha'b (Assemblee des representants du peuple) (217 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: initial election held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Call to Tunisia 39.6%, Nahda 31.8%, UPL 7.4%, Popular Front 6.9%, Afek Tounes 3.7%, CPR 1.8%, other 8.8%; seats by party - Call to Tunisia 86, Nahda 69, UPL 16, Popular Front 15, Afek Tounes 8, CPR 4, other 17, independent 2
description: unicameral Council of Deputies or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA)
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the House election unconstitutional, but the Council rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the Council also boycotted the election
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into 1 civil and 3 criminal chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
note: the new Tunisian constitution of January 2014 called for the creation of a constitutional court by the end of 2015; the court will consist of 12 members - 4 each appointed by the president, Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (an independent 4-part body consisting mainly of elected judges and the remainder legal specialists), and the Chamber of the People's Deputies (parliament); members will serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; in late 2015, the International Commission of Jurists called on Tunisia's parliament to revise the draft on the constitutional court to ensure compliance with international standards; as of spring 2017 the court had not been appointed
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), a body of elected and appointed judges and specialized staff, after consultation with the prime minister; judge tenure based on terms of appointment; Constitutional Court members appointed 3 each by the president of the republic, the Chamber of the People's Deputies, and the SJC; members serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; administrative courts; Court of Audit; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts
highest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
Political parties and leadersAfek Tounes [Yassine BRAHIM]
Al Badil Al-Tounisi (The Tunisian Alternative) [Mehdi JOMAA]
Call of Tunisia (Nidaa Tounes) [Hafedh CAID ESSEBSI]
Congress for the Republic or CPR [Imed DAIMI]
Current of Love [Hachemi HAMDI (formerly the Popular Petition party)
Democratic Alliance Party [Mohamed HAMDI]
Democratic Current [Mohamed ABBOU]
Democratic Patriots' Unified Party [Zied LAKHDHAR]
Free Patriotic Union or UPL (Union patriotique libre) [Slim RIAHI]
Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI]
Machrou Tounes (Tunisia Project) [Mohsen MARZOUK]
Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ahmed KHASKHOUSSI]
Nahda Movement (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
National Destourian Initiative or El Moubadra [Kamel MORJANE]
Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard [Ahmed ESSADDIK]
People's Movement [Zouheir MAGHZAOUI]
Popular Front (a coalition of 9 parties including Democratic Patriots' Unified Party, Workers' Party, Green Tunisia, Tunisian Ba'ath Movement, and Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard)
Republican Party [Issam CHEBBI]
Tunisian Ba'ath Movement [Othman BELHADJ OMAR, secretary general]
Workers' Party [Hamma HAMMAMI]
NA

Political pressure groups and leadersTunisian Association of Women Democrats or ATFD
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Jamel MSALLEM]
Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Noureddine TABOUBI]
Tunisian Women's Association for Research and Development or AFTURD
NA
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Faycal GOUIA (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 5 December 2014)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Daniel H. RUBINSTEIN (Since 22 October 2015)
embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
mailing address: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 963-263
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter William BODDE (since 21 December 2015)
note: the embassy was closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations were temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
Flag descriptionred with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire
three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
National anthem"name: ""Humat Al Hima"" (Defenders of the Homeland)
lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates
"
"name: ""Libya, Libya, Libya""
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as ""Ya Beladi"" or ""Oh, My Country!""; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was ""Allahu Akbar,"" (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)encircled red star and crescent; national colors: red, white
star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years

Economy

TunisiaLibya
Economy - overviewTunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges following the 2011 Arab Spring revolution, including slow economic growth and high unemployment. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the EU.

Tunisia's liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (1987-2011) continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance, and unemployment rose among the country's growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia's economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply.

Tunisia’s government remains under pressure to boost economic growth quickly to mitigate chronic socio-economic challenges, especially high levels of youth unemployment, which has persisted since the revolution in 2011. Successive terrorist attacks against the tourism sector and worker strikes in the phosphate sector, which combined account for nearly 15% of GDP, slowed growth to less than 1% of GDP in 2015 and 1.5% in 2016. Tunis is seeking increased foreign investment and working with labor unions to limit labor disruption.
Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows. In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 20% of GDP in 2016.

Libya’s economic transition away from QADHAFI’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled as political chaos persists and security continues to deteriorate. Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has caused more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$130.8 billion (2016 est.)
$128.9 billion (2015 est.)
$127.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$90.89 billion (2016 est.)
$94.01 billion (2015 est.)
$100.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.5% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
2.3% (2014 est.)
-3.3% (2016 est.)
-6.4% (2015 est.)
-24% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,700 (2016 est.)
$11,600 (2015 est.)
$11,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,200 (2016 est.)
$14,900 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 10.1%
industry: 28.3%
services: 61.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 43.2%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line15.5% (2010 est.)
NA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
13% (2016 est.)
12.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.038 million (2016 est.)
1.153 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 14.8%
industry: 33.2%
services: 51.7% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate14% (2016 est.)
15% (2015 est.)
30% (2004 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $9.882 billion
expenditures: $11.77 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $5.792 billion
expenditures: $13.71 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate1.1% (2016 est.)
-6.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsolives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Exports$12.88 billion (2016 est.)
$14.07 billion (2015 est.)
$10.65 billion (2016 est.)
$10.22 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partnersFrance 30.7%, Italy 19.3%, Germany 11%, Spain 5.2%, Algeria 4.2%, Libya 4% (2015)
Italy 33.3%, Germany 11.7%, China 8.3%, France 8.3%, Spain 5.8%, Netherlands 5.7%, Syria 5.5% (2015)
Imports$17.75 billion (2016 est.)
$19.1 billion (2015 est.)
$9.551 billion (2016 est.)
$11.52 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiestextiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partnersFrance 18.2%, Italy 15.2%, China 8.5%, Germany 7.5%, Spain 4.3%, Russia 4.1%, Algeria 4.1% (2015)
China 15.4%, Italy 13.4%, Turkey 11.5%, France 6.4%, Spain 4.8%, Syria 4.7%, Egypt 4.5%, South Korea 4.4%, Tunisia 4.4% (2015)
Debt - external$34.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.531 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.985 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
2.141 (2016 est.)
1.9617 (2015 est.)
1.9617 (2014 est.)
1.6976 (2013 est.)
1.56 (2012 est.)
Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.69 (2016 est.)
1.379 (2015 est.)
1.379 (2014 est.)
1.2724 (2013 est.)
1.26 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt59% of GDP (2016 est.)
56% of GDP (2015 est.)
10% of GDP (2016 est.)
8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.322 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.085 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$56.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.776 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.849 billion (2015 est.)
-$13.49 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.37 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.39 billion (2016 est.)
$39.39 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$37.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$285 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$285 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$9.662 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate5.75% (31 December 2010)
9.52% (31 December 2010)
3% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7.31% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.76% (31 December 2013 est.)
6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$35.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$35.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$554.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$767.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$12.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$51.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$31.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$30.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$54.66 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 37.6%
male: 35.7%
female: 41.8% (2012 est.)
total: 48.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.6%
government consumption: 20.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.8%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 37.4%
imports of goods and services: -49.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 84.3%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 3.4%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 32.3%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
14% of GDP (2014 est.)
-17.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-34% of GDP (2015 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TunisiaLibya
Electricity - production18 billion kWh (2014 est.)
35 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption15 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports600 million kWh (2014 est.)
1 million kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports500 million kWh (2014 est.)
88 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production47,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
404,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports22,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports48,530 bbl/day (2013 est.)
834,100 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.661 billion cu m (2014 est.)
11.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.52 billion cu m (2014 est.)
5.804 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.86 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.6 million kW (2014 est.)
8.9 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels95.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants1.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production35,530 bbl/day (2013 est.)
158,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption89,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
255,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports17,650 bbl/day (2013 est.)
50,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports64,620 bbl/day (2013 est.)
144,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy21 million Mt (2013 est.)
57 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)

Telecommunications

TunisiaLibya
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 943,508
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 632,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 14.598 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.918 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between several mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 140 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2015)
general assessment: Libya's civil war has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.tn
.ly
Internet userstotal: 5.355 million
percent of population: 48.5% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.219 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediabroadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)
state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)

Transportation

TunisiaLibya
Roadwaystotal: 19,418 km
paved: 14,756 km (includes 357 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,662 km (2010)
total: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
Pipelinescondensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)
condensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira
major seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
LNG terminal(s) (export): Marsa el Brega
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)
total: 23
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Hong Kong 1, Malta 5) (2010)
Airports29 (2013)
146 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
total: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)

Military

TunisiaLibya
Military branchesTunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)
note - in transition; government has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation20-23 years of age for compulsory service, 1-year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)
18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)

Transnational Issues

TunisiaLibya
Disputes - internationalnone
dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia’s increased number of street children, rural children working to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to human trafficking; organized gangs force street children to serve as thieves, beggars, and drug transporters; Tunisian women have been forced into prostitution domestically and elsewhere in the region under false promises of legitimate work; East and West African women may be subjected to forced labor as domestic workers
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tunisia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tunisia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in early 2015, the government drafted a national anti-trafficking action plan outlining proposals to raise awareness and enact draft anti-trafficking legislation; authorities did not provide data on the prosecution and conviction of offenders but reportedly identified 24 victims, as opposed to none in 2013, and operated facilities specifically dedicated to trafficking victims, regardless of nationality and gender; the government did not fully implement its national victim referral mechanism; some unidentified victims were not protected from punishment for unlawful acts directly resulting from being trafficked (2015)
current situation: Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia groups and other informal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human trafficking
tier rating: Tier 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government’s capacity to address human trafficking was hampered by the ongoing power struggle and violence; the judicial system was not functioning, preventing any efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers, complicit detention camp guards or government officials, or militias or armed groups that used child soldiers; the government failed to identify or provide protection to trafficking victims, including child conscripts, and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; no public anti-trafficking awareness campaigns were conducted (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook