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Tunisia vs. Algeria

Introduction

TunisiaAlgeria
Background"Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in convincing the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a ""national unity government"" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014. Beji CAID ESSEBSI was elected as the first president under the country's new constitution. In 2016, the new unity government continued to seek to balance political cohesion with economic and social pressures.
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After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000.
Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.

Geography

TunisiaAlgeria
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates34 00 N, 9 00 E
28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km
total: 2,381,741 sq km
land: 2,381,741 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Georgia
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 1,495 km
border countries (2): Algeria 1,034 km, Libya 461 km
total: 6,734 km
border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km
Coastline1,148 km
998 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climatetemperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrainmountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 246 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
mean elevation: 800 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land useagricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 18.3%; permanent crops 15.4%; permanent pasture 31.1%
forest: 6.6%
other: 28.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 17.3%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8%
forest: 0.6%
other: 82% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,590 sq km (2012)
5,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment - current issuestoxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
largest country in Africa
Population distributionthe overwhelming majority of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the south remains largely underpopulated
the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast

Demographics

TunisiaAlgeria
Population11,134,588 (July 2016 est.)
40,263,711 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.02% (male 1,320,426/female 1,243,287)
15-24 years: 15.05% (male 840,907/female 834,320)
25-54 years: 44.52% (male 2,402,272/female 2,554,362)
55-64 years: 9.21% (male 520,305/female 505,612)
65 years and over: 8.2% (male 448,870/female 464,227) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 29.06% (male 5,991,164/female 5,709,616)
15-24 years: 15.95% (male 3,287,448/female 3,136,624)
25-54 years: 42.88% (male 8,737,944/female 8,526,137)
55-64 years: 6.61% (male 1,349,291/female 1,312,339)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,027,126/female 1,186,022) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 32.4 years
male: 31.9 years
female: 32.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.86% (2016 est.)
1.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.1 years
male: 74 years
female: 78.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 76.8 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 78.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.98 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.04% (2015 est.)
0.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groupsArab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,600 (2015 est.)
8,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2015 est.)
100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
note: despite having no official status, French plays a major role in the country and is spoken by about two-thirds of the population
Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 74.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 87.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: NA
female: NA (2015)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Education expenditures6.3% of GDP (2012)
4.3% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 66.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.2% of population
total: 97.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.8% of population
total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 79.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 20.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 87.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTUNIS (capital) 1.993 million (2015)
ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate62 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.3% (2012)
3% (2013)
Health expenditures7% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.1% (2014)
23.6% (2014)
Demographic profileThe Tunisian Government took steps in the 1960s to decrease population growth and gender inequality in order to improve socioeconomic development. Through its introduction of a national family planning program (the first in Africa) and by raising the legal age of marriage, Tunisia rapidly reduced its total fertility rate from about 7 children per woman in 1960 to 2 today. Unlike many of its North African and Middle Eastern neighbors, Tunisia will soon be shifting from being a youth-bulge country to having a transitional age structure, characterized by lower fertility and mortality rates, a slower population growth rate, a rising median age, and a longer average life expectancy.
Currently, the sizable young working-age population is straining Tunisia’s labor market and education and health care systems. Persistent high unemployment among Tunisia’s growing workforce, particularly its increasing number of university graduates and women, was a key factor in the uprisings that led to the overthrow of the BEN ALI regime in 2011. In the near term, Tunisia’s large number of jobless young, working-age adults; deficiencies in primary and secondary education; and the ongoing lack of job creation and skills mismatches could contribute to future unrest. In the longer term, a sustained low fertility rate will shrink future youth cohorts and alleviate demographic pressure on Tunisia’s labor market, but employment and education hurdles will still need to be addressed.
Tunisia has a history of labor emigration. In the 1960s, workers migrated to European countries to escape poor economic conditions and to fill Europe’s need for low-skilled labor in construction and manufacturing. The Tunisian Government signed bilateral labor agreements with France, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, and the Netherlands, with the expectation that Tunisian workers would eventually return home. At the same time, growing numbers of Tunisians headed to Libya, often illegally, to work in the expanding oil industry. In the mid-1970s, with European countries beginning to restrict immigration and Tunisian-Libyan tensions brewing, Tunisian economic migrants turned toward the Gulf countries. After mass expulsions from Libya in 1983, Tunisian migrants increasingly sought family reunification in Europe or moved illegally to southern Europe, while Tunisia itself developed into a transit point for sub-Saharan migrants heading to Europe.
Following the ousting of BEN ALI in 2011, the illegal migration of unemployed Tunisian youths to Italy and onward to France soared into the tens of thousands. Thousands more Tunisian and foreign workers escaping civil war in Libya flooded into Tunisia and joined the exodus. A readmission agreement signed by Italy and Tunisia in April 2011 helped stem the outflow, leaving Tunisia and international organizations to repatriate, resettle, or accommodate some 1 million Libyans and third-country nationals.
For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, Algeria’s high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962 the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria’s population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women’s rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women’s education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman’s age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.
Algeria’s fertility rate experienced an unexpected upturn in the early 2000s, as the average woman’s age at first marriage dropped slightly. The reversal in fertility could represent a temporary fluctuation in marriage age or, less likely, a decrease in the steady rate of contraceptive use.
Thousands of Algerian peasants – mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region – faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers’ decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.
Not until Algeria’s civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria’s construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.
Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara. An estimated 90,000 Sahrawis live in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.
Contraceptive prevalence rate62.5% (2011/12)
57.1% (2012/13)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 44.8
youth dependency ratio: 33.8
elderly dependency ratio: 11
potential support ratio: 9.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.6
youth dependency ratio: 43.6
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1
potential support ratio: 11 (2015 est.)

Government

TunisiaAlgeria
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Tunis
conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers
Government typeparliamentary republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tunis
geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence20 March 1956 (from France)
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014, signed by the president, prime minister, and Constituent Assembly speaker 27 January 2014
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-third of members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People; following review by the Constitutional Court, approval to proceed requires an absolute majority vote by the Assembly and final passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; the president can opt to submit an amendment to a referendum, which requires an absolute majority of votes cast for passage (2017)
history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three-fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
Suffrage18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Beji CAID ESSEBSI (since 31 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Youssef CHAHED (since 27 August 2016)
cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly of the Representatives of the People
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 November and 21 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the prime minister is selected by the majority party or majority coalition and appointed by the president
election results: Beji CAID ESSEBSI elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Beji CAID ESSEBSI (Tunisia's Call) 55.7%, Moncef MARZOUKI (CPR) 44.3%
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdel Madjid TEBBOUNE (since 25 May 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from the majority party in Parliament
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Representatives of the People or Nuwwab ash-Sha'b (Assemblee des representants du peuple) (217 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: initial election held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Call to Tunisia 39.6%, Nahda 31.8%, UPL 7.4%, Popular Front 6.9%, Afek Tounes 3.7%, CPR 1.8%, other 8.8%; seats by party - Call to Tunisia 86, Nahda 69, UPL 16, Popular Front 15, Afek Tounes 8, CPR 4, other 17, independent 2
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 4 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 164, RND 97, MSP-FC 33, TAJ 19, Ennahda -FJD 15, FFS 14, El Mostakbel 14, MPA 13, PT 11, RCD 9, ANR 8, MEN 4, other 33, independent 28
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into 1 civil and 3 criminal chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
note: the new Tunisian constitution of January 2014 called for the creation of a constitutional court by the end of 2015; the court will consist of 12 members - 4 each appointed by the president, Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (an independent 4-part body consisting mainly of elected judges and the remainder legal specialists), and the Chamber of the People's Deputies (parliament); members will serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; in late 2015, the International Commission of Jurists called on Tunisia's parliament to revise the draft on the constitutional court to ensure compliance with international standards; as of spring 2017 the court had not been appointed
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), a body of elected and appointed judges and specialized staff, after consultation with the prime minister; judge tenure based on terms of appointment; Constitutional Court members appointed 3 each by the president of the republic, the Chamber of the People's Deputies, and the SJC; members serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; administrative courts; Court of Audit; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leadersAfek Tounes [Yassine BRAHIM]
Al Badil Al-Tounisi (The Tunisian Alternative) [Mehdi JOMAA]
Call of Tunisia (Nidaa Tounes) [Hafedh CAID ESSEBSI]
Congress for the Republic or CPR [Imed DAIMI]
Current of Love [Hachemi HAMDI (formerly the Popular Petition party)
Democratic Alliance Party [Mohamed HAMDI]
Democratic Current [Mohamed ABBOU]
Democratic Patriots' Unified Party [Zied LAKHDHAR]
Free Patriotic Union or UPL (Union patriotique libre) [Slim RIAHI]
Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI]
Machrou Tounes (Tunisia Project) [Mohsen MARZOUK]
Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ahmed KHASKHOUSSI]
Nahda Movement (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
National Destourian Initiative or El Moubadra [Kamel MORJANE]
Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard [Ahmed ESSADDIK]
People's Movement [Zouheir MAGHZAOUI]
Popular Front (a coalition of 9 parties including Democratic Patriots' Unified Party, Workers' Party, Green Tunisia, Tunisian Ba'ath Movement, and Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard)
Republican Party [Issam CHEBBI]
Tunisian Ba'ath Movement [Othman BELHADJ OMAR, secretary general]
Workers' Party [Hamma HAMMAMI]
Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP)
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
Movement of National Understanding or MEN
Movement for National Reform or Islah [Djilali GHOUINI]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Djamel OULD ABBES]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD
National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
National Republican Alliance or ANR [Redha MALEK]
New Dawn Party or PFJ
New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
Rally for Hope in Algeria or TAJ
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
Vanguard of Freedoms [Ali BENFLIS]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leadersTunisian Association of Women Democrats or ATFD
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Jamel MSALLEM]
Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Noureddine TABOUBI]
Tunisian Women's Association for Research and Development or AFTURD
Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Faycal GOUIA (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Daniel H. RUBINSTEIN (Since 22 October 2015)
embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
mailing address: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 963-263
chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algieria
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064
Flag descriptionred with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
National anthem"name: ""Humat Al Hima"" (Defenders of the Homeland)
lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates
"
"name: ""Kassaman"" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI
note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote ""Kassaman"" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)encircled red star and crescent; national colors: red, white
star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

TunisiaAlgeria
Economy - overviewTunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges following the 2011 Arab Spring revolution, including slow economic growth and high unemployment. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the EU.

Tunisia's liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (1987-2011) continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance, and unemployment rose among the country's growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia's economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply.

Tunisia’s government remains under pressure to boost economic growth quickly to mitigate chronic socio-economic challenges, especially high levels of youth unemployment, which has persisted since the revolution in 2011. Successive terrorist attacks against the tourism sector and worker strikes in the phosphate sector, which combined account for nearly 15% of GDP, slowed growth to less than 1% of GDP in 2015 and 1.5% in 2016. Tunis is seeking increased foreign investment and working with labor unions to limit labor disruption.
Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.

Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and nearly 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves while oil prices were high. In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. Declining oil prices since 2014 have reduced the government’s ability to use state-driven growth to distribute rents and fund generous public subsidies. Algeria’s foreign exchange reserves have declined by more than 40% since late 2013 and its oil stabilization fund has decreased from about $75 billion at the end of 2013 to about $7 billion in 2017, which is the statutory minimum.

Algiers has strengthened protectionist measures since 2015 to limit its import bill and encourage domestic production of non-oil and gas industries. Since 2015, the government has imposed additional regulatory requirements on access to foreign exchange for imports and import quotas for specific products, such as cars, to limit their importation. Meanwhile, Algeria has not increased non-hydrocarbon exports, and hydrocarbon exports have declined because of field depletion and increased domestic demand.

With declining revenues caused by falling oil prices, the government has been under pressure to reduce spending. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted Algiers to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. In 2016, the government increased taxes on electricity and fuel, resulting in a modest increase in gasoline prices, and in 2017 raised by 2% the value-added tax on nearly all products, but has refrained from directly reducing subsidies, particularly for education, healthcare, and housing programs.

Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$130.8 billion (2016 est.)
$128.9 billion (2015 est.)
$127.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$609.4 billion (2016 est.)
$588.4 billion (2015 est.)
$566.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.5% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
2.3% (2014 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,700 (2016 est.)
$11,600 (2015 est.)
$11,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$15,000 (2016 est.)
$14,700 (2015 est.)
$14,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 10.1%
industry: 28.3%
services: 61.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 38.4%
services: 48.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line15.5% (2010 est.)
23% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.038 million (2016 est.)
11.78 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 14.8%
industry: 33.2%
services: 51.7% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 30.9%
services: 58.4% (2011 est.) (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate14% (2016 est.)
15% (2015 est.)
9.9% (2016 est.)
11.2% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40 (2005 est.)
41.7 (1995 est.)
35.3 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $9.882 billion
expenditures: $11.77 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $42.69 billion
expenditures: $66.45 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate1.1% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsolives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Exports$12.88 billion (2016 est.)
$14.07 billion (2015 est.)
$27.5 billion (2016 est.)
$33 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
Exports - partnersFrance 30.7%, Italy 19.3%, Germany 11%, Spain 5.2%, Algeria 4.2%, Libya 4% (2015)
Spain 17.4%, Italy 13.7%, France 12.3%, UK 7.2%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, Turkey 5.2%, Brazil 4.5% (2015)
Imports$17.75 billion (2016 est.)
$19.1 billion (2015 est.)
$44.6 billion (2016 est.)
$50.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiestextiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partnersFrance 18.2%, Italy 15.2%, China 8.5%, Germany 7.5%, Spain 4.3%, Russia 4.1%, Algeria 4.1% (2015)
China 15%, France 10.3%, Italy 8.8%, Spain 7.2%, Germany 6.2%, US 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$34.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.301 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
2.141 (2016 est.)
1.9617 (2015 est.)
1.9617 (2014 est.)
1.6976 (2013 est.)
1.56 (2012 est.)
Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
110.1 (2016 est.)
100.691 (2015 est.)
100.691 (2014 est.)
80.579 (2013 est.)
77.54 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt59% of GDP (2016 est.)
56% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.322 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.085 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$145 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.776 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.849 billion (2015 est.)
-$26.31 billion (2016 est.)
-$27.29 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.39 billion (2016 est.)
$168.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$37.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$285 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$285 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.025 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$9.662 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate5.75% (31 December 2010)
4% (31 December 2010)
4% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7.31% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.76% (31 December 2013 est.)
8% (31 December 2016 est.)
8% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$35.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$35.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$100.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$12.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$91.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$31.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$30.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$133.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-13.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 37.6%
male: 35.7%
female: 41.8% (2012 est.)
total: 25.3%
male: 22.1%
female: 41.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.6%
government consumption: 20.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.8%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 37.4%
imports of goods and services: -49.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 41.5%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 6.6%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
14% of GDP (2014 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TunisiaAlgeria
Electricity - production18 billion kWh (2014 est.)
60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption15 billion kWh (2014 est.)
49 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports600 million kWh (2014 est.)
900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports500 million kWh (2014 est.)
700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production47,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.37 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports22,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports48,530 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.146 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
12 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
4.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.661 billion cu m (2014 est.)
83.29 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.52 billion cu m (2014 est.)
37.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
40.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.86 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.6 million kW (2014 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels95.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants1.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production35,530 bbl/day (2013 est.)
505,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption89,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
430,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports17,650 bbl/day (2013 est.)
435,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports64,620 bbl/day (2013 est.)
108,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy21 million Mt (2013 est.)
128 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2016)

Telecommunications

TunisiaAlgeria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 943,508
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,267,592
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 14.598 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
total: 45.928 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between several mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 140 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2015)
general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria
domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2015, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 116 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia (2015)
Internet country code.tn
.dz
Internet userstotal: 5.355 million
percent of population: 48.5% (July 2015 est.)
total: 15.105 million
percent of population: 38.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediabroadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)
state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations (2009)

Transportation

TunisiaAlgeria
Railwaystotal: 2,173 km (1,991 in use)
standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
dual gauge: 8 km 1.435-1.000-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2014)
total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 19,418 km
paved: 14,756 km (includes 357 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,662 km (2010)
total: 113,655 km
paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)
Pipelinescondensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)
condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira
major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)
total: 38
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)
Airports29 (2013)
157 (2016)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
total: 64
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 93
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 34 (2013)

Military

TunisiaAlgeria
Military branchesTunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)
People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP): Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation20-23 years of age for compulsory service, 1-year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)
17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.28% of GDP (2015)
1.94% of GDP (2014)
1.64% of GDP (2013)
1.51% of GDP (2012)
1.56% of GDP (2011)
6% of GDP (2016)
6.24% of GDP (2015)
5.56% of GDP (2014)
4.96% of GDP (2013)
4.46% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TunisiaAlgeria
Disputes - internationalnone
Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia’s increased number of street children, rural children working to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to human trafficking; organized gangs force street children to serve as thieves, beggars, and drug transporters; Tunisian women have been forced into prostitution domestically and elsewhere in the region under false promises of legitimate work; East and West African women may be subjected to forced labor as domestic workers
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tunisia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tunisia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in early 2015, the government drafted a national anti-trafficking action plan outlining proposals to raise awareness and enact draft anti-trafficking legislation; authorities did not provide data on the prosecution and conviction of offenders but reportedly identified 24 victims, as opposed to none in 2013, and operated facilities specifically dedicated to trafficking victims, regardless of nationality and gender; the government did not fully implement its national victim referral mechanism; some unidentified victims were not protected from punishment for unlawful acts directly resulting from being trafficked (2015)
current situation: Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in human smuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often with the aid of smugglers, for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into prostitution, domestic service, and begging; some sub-Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically
tier rating: Tier 3 – Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so: some officials denied the existence of human trafficking, hindering law enforcement efforts; the government reported its first conviction under its anti-trafficking law; one potential trafficking case was investigated in 2014, but no suspected offenders were arrested; no progress was made in identifying victims among vulnerable groups or referring them to NGO-run protection service, which left trafficking victims subject to arrest and detention; no anti-trafficking public awareness or educational campaigns were conducted (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook