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Togo vs. Burkina Faso

Introduction

TogoBurkina Faso
BackgroundFrench Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since 2007, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to political reconciliation and democratic reform, and Togo has held multiple presidential and legislative elections that were deemed generally free and fair by international observers. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly and many Togolese complain that important political measures such as presidential term limits and electoral reforms remain undone, leaving the country’s politics in a lethargic state. Internationally, Togo is still known as a country where the same family has been in power for five decades.
Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Former President Blaise COMPAORE (1987-2014) resigned in late October 2014 following popular protests against his efforts to amend the Constitution's two-term presidential limit. By mid-November, a framework for an interim government was adopted under the terms of the National Transition Charter. An interim administration, led by President Michel KAFANDO and Prime Minister Yacouba Isaac ZIDA, began organizing presidential and legislative elections planned for October 2015, but these were postponed during a weeklong failed coup in September. The rescheduled elections were held on 29 November, and Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected president in the first round. Burkina Faso's high population growth and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

Geography

TogoBurkina Faso
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Western Africa, north of Ghana
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 1 10 E
13 00 N, 2 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than West Virginia
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundariestotal: 1,880 km
border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km
total: 3,611 km
border countries (6): Benin 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 545 km, Ghana 602 km, Mali 1,325 km, Niger 622 km, Togo 131 km
Coastline56 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terraingently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 236 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
mean elevation: 297 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Land useagricultural land: 67.4%
arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4%
forest: 4.9%
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43%
arable land 20.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 21.9%
forest: 20.4%
other: 36.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land70 sq km (2012)
550 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas

Demographics

TogoBurkina Faso
Population7,756,937
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
19,512,533
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.44% (male 1,573,363/female 1,563,267)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 749,002/female 751,571)
25-54 years: 32.58% (male 1,255,524/female 1,271,804)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 156,249/female 175,089)
65 years and over: 3.37% (male 112,845/female 148,223) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.04% (male 4,402,311/female 4,386,518)
15-24 years: 20.08% (male 1,966,644/female 1,951,722)
25-54 years: 29.28% (male 2,898,407/female 2,813,923)
55-64 years: 3.16% (male 267,763/female 349,433)
65 years and over: 2.44% (male 178,127/female 297,685) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.7 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 20 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.2 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.66% (2016 est.)
3.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate33.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 43.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 73.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 65 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 67.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 55.5 years
male: 53.4 years
female: 57.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.4% (2015 est.)
0.83% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groupsAfrican (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Mossi 52.5%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 6.8%, Bobo 4.8%, Gurunsi 4.5%, Senufo 4.4%, Bissa 3.9%, Lobi 2.5%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.1%, other 7% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS106,300 (2015 est.)
95,300 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Muslim 61.6%, Catholic 23.2%, traditional/animist 7.3%, Protestant 6.7%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths5,100 (2015 est.)
3,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 55.3% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 36%
male: 43%
female: 29.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: NA
female: NA (2011)
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2015)
3.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 40% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 29.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 82.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 24.7% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 11.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 75.3% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 50.4% of population
rural: 6.7% of population
total: 19.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 49.6% of population
rural: 93.3% of population
total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)
OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.741 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
371 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight16.2% (2014)
26.2% (2010)
Health expenditures5.2% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.4% (2014)
5.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 774,801
percentage: 47% (2010 est.)
total number: 1,521,006
percentage: 38% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileTogo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.
Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in 2016 was home to more than 18,000 refugees from Ghana.
Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.
Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and currently hosts about 50,000 Malians.
Contraceptive prevalence rate19.9% (2013/14)
20.8% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 81.8
youth dependency ratio: 76.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 92.2
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Government

TogoBurkina Faso
Country name"conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words ""to"" (water) and ""go"" (shore) to give the sense of ""by the water""; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
local long form: none
local short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
etymology: name translates as ""Land of the Honest (Incorruptible) Men""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Ouagadougou
geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
Independence27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
5 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 April (1960)
Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, 2007 (2016)
several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991; amended several times, last in 2015 for setting a two-term limit for presidents; note - constitution temporarily suspended between late October and mid-November 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcustomary law system
civil law based on the French model and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE 4%, other 2%
chief of state: President Roch Marc Christian KABORE (since 29 December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paul Kaba THIEBA (since 6 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds, if needed, for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); election last held on 29 November 2015 (next scheduled for November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly
election results: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in one round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY 3.1%. Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 2.8%, other 10.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1
description: unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPP 55, UPC 33, CDP 18, Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Party 5, ADF/RDA 3, other 13
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Council of State (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judges have no term limits; Council of State judge appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice and the president of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
Political parties and leadersAction Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOUGI]
Combat for Political Change in 2015 or CAP 2015 [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Democrastic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO]
African People’s Movement or MAP [Victorien TOUGOUMA]
Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Achille TAPSOBA]
Le Faso Autrement [Ablasse OUEDRAOGO]
New Alliance of the Faso or NAFA [Rasmane OUEDRAOGO]
New Time for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU]
Organization for Democracy and Work or ODT [Mahamoudou SAWADOGO]
Party for Development and Change or PDC [Saran SEREME]
Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE]
Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]
Party for National Renaissance or PAREN [Tahirou BARRY]
People's Movement for Progress or MPP [Roch March Christian KABORE]
Rally for Democracy and Socialism or RDS [Francois OUEDRAOGO]
Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE]
Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Adama SERE]
Union for a New Burkina or UBN [Yacouba OUEDRAOGO]
Union for Progress and Change or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE]
Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]
Youth Alliance for the Republic and Independence or AJIR [Adama KANAZOE]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Balai Citoyen [Herve KAM]
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Bassolma BAZIE]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Burkinabe Society for Constitutional Law or SBDC [Abdoulaye SOMA]
Center for Democratic Governance or CGD [Thomas OUEDRAOGO]
Coalition for African Renaissance or CAR [Herve OUATTARA]
National Independent Union of Burkinabe Magistrates or SAMAB
National Union for Health Workers or SYNTSHA
National Union for Primary Education Teachers or SYNATEB
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Seydou SINKA (since 1 November 2014)
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMORE (since December 2015)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew YOUNG (since September 2016)
embassy: Rue 15.873, Avenue Sembene Ousmane, Ouaga 2000, Secteur 15
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
telephone: [226] 25-49-53-00
FAX: [226] 25-49-56-28
Flag descriptionfive equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem"name: ""Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux"" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
"
"name: ""Le Ditanye"" (Anthem of Victory)
lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA
note: adopted 1974; also known as ""Une Seule Nuit"" (One Single Night); written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white
white stallion; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

TogoBurkina Faso
Economy - overviewTogo is enjoying a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure. The country has recently completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new sea-port. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings.

The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and is currently finalizing IMF approval for an agreement on an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package . Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

Togo’s 2016 economic growth remained steady at 5.3%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.
Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that depends on adequate rainfall. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and cotton is the main cash crop. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base.

Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends largely on production levels and global prices for the two commodities. The Burkinabe economy experienced high levels of growth over the last few years, and the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports.

Burkina Faso experienced a number of public protests over the high cost of living, corruption, and other socioeconomic issues in 2013, while the fall of the COMPAORE government in 2014 and failed coup in September 2015 disrupted economic activity and strained government finances. A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2013, was recently completed. Discussions are currently underway on a new program. Political insecurity in neighboring Mali, unreliable energy supplies, and poor transportation links pose long-term challenges.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$11.61 billion (2016 est.)
$11.02 billion (2015 est.)
$10.46 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$32.99 billion (2016 est.)
$31.35 billion (2015 est.)
$30.14 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.3% (2016 est.)
5.4% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2014 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,500 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)
$1,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 27.5%
industry: 21.3%
services: 51.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 32.5%
industry: 21.8%
services: 45.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line55.1% (2015 est.)
40.1% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.2% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.595 million (2007 est.)
7.942 million
note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
agriculture: 90%
industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
77% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46 (2011)
39.5 (2007)
48.2 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $1.14 billion
expenditures: $1.377 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.442 billion
expenditures: $2.779 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesphosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Industrial production growth rate7.1% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Exports$1.2 billion (2016 est.)
$1.246 billion (2015 est.)
$2.771 billion (2016 est.)
$2.515 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesreexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
gold, cotton, livestock
Exports - partnersIndia 13.7%, Burkina Faso 11.5%, China 11.4%, Benin 9.7%, Ghana 9.1%, Lebanon 8.4%, Nigeria 6.2%, Niger 6% (2015)
Switzerland 53.2%, India 14.8% (2015)
Imports$1.852 billion (2016 est.)
$1.881 billion (2015 est.)
$2.872 billion (2016 est.)
$2.863 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partnersChina 22.8%, Belgium 20.2%, Netherlands 11.9%, France 6.6%, India 4.8%, Singapore 4.4% (2015)
Cote dIvoire 23.3%, France 11.1%, Togo 7.6%, China 4.8%, Ghana 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$1.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.092 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.669 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
628.16 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$647.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$574 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$333.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$433 million (2016 est.)
-$461 million (2015 est.)
-$918 million (2016 est.)
-$892 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.52 billion (2016 est.)
$12.01 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate2.5% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rateNA%
NA%
Stock of domestic credit$1.977 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.192 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.315 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.348 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.124 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.599 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.184 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.387 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-5.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 107%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -93.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 45.1%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving18% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
7.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TogoBurkina Faso
Electricity - production100 million kWh (2014 est.)
700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity86,000 kW (2014 est.)
300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
86.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants78.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption13,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
22,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports12,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
20,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 5,000,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 35%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 14,100,000
electrification - total population: 17%
electrification - urban areas: 56%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)

Telecommunications

TogoBurkina Faso
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 52,690
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 75,075
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 4.657 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (July 2015 est.)
total: 14.447 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2015)
general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing steadily from a low base
international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.tg
.bf
Internet userstotal: 538,000
percent of population: 7.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.156 million
percent of population: 11.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2017)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)

Transportation

TogoBurkina Faso
Railwaystotal: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 622 km
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
total: 15,272 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Airports8 (2013)
23 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Military

TogoBurkina Faso
Military branchesTogolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre); update State, April 2017, Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2017)
Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie (2011)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; currently the military is only an all-volunteer force (2017)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.77% of GDP (2013)
1.63% of GDP (2012)
1.57% of GDP (2011)
1.67% of GDP (2014)
1.34% of GDP (2013)
1.32% of GDP (2012)
1.29% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TogoBurkina Faso
Disputes - internationalin 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali; the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 9,648 (Ghana) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 33,056 (Mali) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook