Home

Thailand vs. Cambodia

Introduction

ThailandCambodia
BackgroundA unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the US in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. A blanket amnesty bill for individuals involved in street protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes - including all convictions against THAKSIN - triggered months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013.
In early May 2014, YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army, led by Royal Thai Army Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, staged a coup against the caretaker government. PRAYUT was appointed prime minister in August 2014. The interim military government created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution, which was passed in a national referendum in August 2016. Elections are tentatively set for mid-2018. King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet passed away in October 2016 after 70 years on the throne; his only son, WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, ascended the throne in December 2016. He signed the new constitution in April 2017. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in its southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a seven-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.
The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.

Geography

ThailandCambodia
LocationSoutheastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 100 00 E
13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 513,120 sq km
land: 510,890 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km
total: 181,035 sq km
land: 176,515 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparativeabout three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
one and a half times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundariestotal: 5,673 km
border countries (4): Burma 2,416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1,845 km, Malaysia 595 km
total: 2,530 km
border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km
Coastline3,219 km
443 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terraincentral plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 287 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
mean elevation: 126 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resourcestin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 41.2%
arable land 30.8%; permanent crops 8.8%; permanent pasture 1.6%
forest: 37.2%
other: 21.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.1%
arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5%
forest: 56.5%
other: 11.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land64,150 sq km (2012)
3,540 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsland subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment - current issuesair pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notecontrols only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
Population distributionhighest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly east / northeast of Bankok and in the extreme southern region of the country
population concentrated in the southeast, particularly in and around the capital of Phnom Penh; further distribution is linked closely to the Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers

Demographics

ThailandCambodia
Population68,200,824
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
15,957,223
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.18% (male 6,000,434/female 5,714,464)
15-24 years: 14.47% (male 5,030,930/female 4,839,931)
25-54 years: 46.5% (male 15,678,250/female 16,038,155)
55-64 years: 11.64% (male 3,728,028/female 4,208,624)
65 years and over: 10.21% (male 3,047,938/female 3,914,070) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 31.24% (male 2,515,435/female 2,468,855)
15-24 years: 19.02% (male 1,501,070/female 1,533,500)
25-54 years: 40.18% (male 3,139,851/female 3,271,077)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 342,063/female 524,114)
65 years and over: 4.14% (male 248,454/female 412,804) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.2 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 24.9 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.32% (2016 est.)
1.56% (2016 est.)
Birth rate11.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.7 years
male: 71.5 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64.5 years
male: 62 years
female: 67.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.51 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.56 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.12% (2015 est.)
0.63% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groupsThai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <.1% (2015 est.)
Khmer 97.6%, Cham 1.2%, Chinese 0.1%, Vietnamese 0.1%, other 0.9% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS438,100 (2015 est.)
74,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.3%, Christian 1%, other <.1%, none <.1% (2015 est.)
Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths14,200 (2015 est.)
2,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesThai (official) 90.7%, Burmese 1.3%, other 8%
note: English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)
Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.7%
male: 96.6%
female: 96.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77.2%
male: 84.5%
female: 70.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2008)
Education expenditures4.1% of GDP (2013)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 50.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 97.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 69.1% of population
total: 75.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 30.9% of population
total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 89.9% of population
rural: 96.1% of population
total: 93% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.1% of population
rural: 3.9% of population
total: 7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 30.5% of population
total: 42.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 69.5% of population
total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBANGKOK (capital) 9.27 million; Samut Prakan 1.814 million (2015)
PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate20 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight9.2% (2012)
23.9% (2014)
Health expenditures6.5% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.39 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate9.2% (2014)
2.9% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.3 years (2009 est.)
22.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate79.3% (2012)
56.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 39.2
youth dependency ratio: 24.7
elderly dependency ratio: 14.6
potential support ratio: 6.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.6
youth dependency ratio: 49.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2015 est.)

Government

ThailandCambodia
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: Siam
etymology: ""Land of the Tai [People]""; the meaning of ""tai"" is uncertain, but may originally have meant ""human beings,"" ""people,"" or ""free people""
"
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic transliteration)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French transliteration of the native name Kampuchea
Government typeconstitutional monarchy; note - interim military-affiliated government since May 2014
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buri Ram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Si Sa Ket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum
municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
Independence1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
9 November 1953 (from France)
National holidayBirthday of King Maha VAJIRALONGKORN, 28 July (1952)
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitutionmany previous; draft of latest completed 29 March 2016, approved by referendum 7 August 2016, signed by the king 6 April 2017; note - the final version has several changes not reflected in the one passed by referendum (2016)
previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with common law influences
civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun (since 1 December 2016); note - King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946) died 13 October 2016
head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), THANASAK Patimaprakon, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014), SOMKHIT Chatusiphithak (since 20 August 2015), PRACHIN Chantong, Air Chief Mar. (since 20 August 2015), NARONG Phiphatthanasai, Adm. (since 20 August 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the House of Representatives approves a person for Prime Minister who must then by appointed by the King (as stated in the transitory provision of the 2017 constitution); the office of prime minister can be held for up to a total of 8 years
note: Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat, also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra, was removed from office on 7 May 2014 after the Constitutional Court ruled she illegally transferred a government official; Thai army declared martial law on 20 May 2014 followed by a coup on 22 May 2014
chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), TEA BANH, Gen., HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: in transition; following the May 2014 military coup, a National Legislative Assembly or Sapha Nitibanyat Haeng Chat of no more than 220 members replaced the bicameral National Assembly; expanded to 250 members in September 2016; elections for a permanent legislative body are currently unscheduled and probably will not occur until mid-2017; the 2017 constitution calls for a 250-member military-appointed Senate with 5-year terms and a 500-member elected House of Representatives with 4-year terms
elections: Senate - last held on 30 March 2014; House of Representatives - last held on 2 February 2014, but later declared invalid by the Constitutional Court
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125
elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, other 6.7%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of court president, 6 vice-presidents, and 60-70 judges, and organized into 10 divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judge term determined by the monarch; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch to serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts
highest court(s): Supreme Council (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia (also called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009; court proceeding were ongoing in 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Council judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 17-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appellate Court; provincial and municipal courts; Military Court
Political parties and leadersChat Patthana Party or CPN (National Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukun]
Chat Thai Phatthana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut]
Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin]
Matuphum Party (Motherland Party) [Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin]
Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem]
Phumchai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun]
Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
Prachathipatai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phichan]
Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [acting leader VIROT Paoin]
Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [acting leader Surapong WETCHAKORN]
Rak Santi Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIN Surachetphong]
Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [KHEM SOKHA] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])
Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
Political pressure groups and leadersMulticolor Group
People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; labor unions; youth groups
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CICA (observer), EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINUSMA, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador PHISAN Manawaphat (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM BUN RONG (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Glyn T. DAVIES (since 27 November 2015)
embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
embassy:
mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Flag descriptionfive horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy
note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white, three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design
National anthem"name: ""Phleng Chat Thai"" (National Anthem of Thailand)
lyrics/music: Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG
note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; ""Phleng Sanlasoen Phra Barami"" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
"
"name: ""Nokoreach"" (Royal Kingdom)
lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL
note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue
Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

ThailandCambodia
Economy - overviewWith a relatively well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and generally pro-investment policies, Thailand is highly dependent on international trade, with exports accounting for about two-thirds of GDP. Thailand’s exports include electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. The industry and service sectors produce about 90% of GDP. The agricultural sector, comprised mostly of small-scale farmers, contributes only 10% of GDP but employs about one-third of the labor force. Thailand has attracted an estimated 3.0-4.5 million migrant workers, mostly from neighboring countries.

Over the last few decades, Thailand has had strong growth and has reduced poverty substantially. In 2013, the Thai Government implemented a nationwide 300 baht (roughly $10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners.

Growth has slowed in the last few years, however, due to domestic political turmoil and sluggish global demand. Nevertheless, Thailand’s economic fundamentals are sound, with low inflation, low unemployment, and reasonable public and external debt levels. Tourism and government spending - mostly on infrastructure and short-term stimulus measures – have helped to boost the economy, and The Bank of Thailand has been supportive, with several interest rate reductions.

Over the longer-term, Thailand faces labor shortages, and domestic debt levels, political uncertainty, and an aging population pose risks to growth.
Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade; GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and at least 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 600,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. Tourism has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching around 4.5 million visitors in 2014. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems.

Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited human resources, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66 million people live on less than $1.20 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure.

The World Bank in 2016 formally reclassified Cambodia as a lower middle-income country as a result of continued rapid economic growth over the past several years. Cambodia’s graduation from a low-income country will reduce its eligibility for foreign assistance and will challenge the government to seek new sources of financing in 2017. The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.161 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.125 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.093 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$58.94 billion (2016 est.)
$55.09 billion (2015 est.)
$51.47 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2014 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$16,800 (2016 est.)
$16,300 (2015 est.)
$15,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,700 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.9%
industry: 35.9%
services: 55.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 26.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 43.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line7.2% (2015 est.)
17.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.9% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
Labor force38.45 million (2016 est.)
6.643 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 31.8%
industry: 16.7%
services: 51.5% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 48.7%
industry: 19.9%
services: 31.5% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate0.9% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
0.3% (2013 est.)
0.2% (2012 est.)
note: according to official statistics; underemployment is high
Distribution of family income - Gini index44.5 (2015)
48.4 (2011)
37.9 (2008 est.)
41.9 (2004 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $76.69 billion
expenditures: $86.94 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.388 billion
expenditures: $3.562 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
8.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products
rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
Exports$215.3 billion (2016 est.)
$214.4 billion (2015 est.)
$8.762 billion (2016 est.)
$8.453 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesautomobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports - partnersUS 11.2%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.4%, Hong Kong 5.5%, Malaysia 4.8%, Australia 4.6%, Vietnam 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2015)
US 23%, UK 8.7%, Germany 8.2%, Japan 7.4%, Canada 6.7%, China 5.1%, Vietnam 5%, Thailand 4.9%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Imports$194.7 billion (2016 est.)
$202.7 billion (2015 est.)
$12.32 billion (2016 est.)
$11.92 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports - partnersChina 20.3%, Japan 15.4%, US 6.9%, Malaysia 5.9%, UAE 4% (2015)
Thailand 28.7%, China 22.2%, Vietnam 16.4%, Hong Kong 6.1%, Singapore 5.7% (2015)
Debt - external$131.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$131.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.483 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesbaht per US dollar -
35.4 (2016 est.)
34.248 (2015 est.)
34.248 (2014 est.)
32.48 (2013 est.)
31.08 (2012 est.)
riels (KHR) per US dollar -
4,066 (2016 est.)
4,067.8 (2015 est.)
4,067.8 (2014 est.)
4,037.5 (2013 est.)
4,033 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 October - 30 September
calendar year
Public debt50.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
46% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
33.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$171.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$156.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.477 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.376 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$46.41 billion (2016 est.)
$32.15 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.678 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.886 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$406.8 billion (2016 est.)
$19.37 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$197.4 billion (31 Decenber 2016 est.)
$188.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$29.17 billion (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$348.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$430.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$354.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate1.5% (31 December 2016)
1.5% (31 December 2015)
NA% (31 December 2012)
5.25% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.56% (31 December 2015 est.)
11.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.71% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$501.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$486.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.776 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$50.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.785 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.602 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$518.1 billion (31 Decenber 2016 est.)
$512.5 billion (31 Decenber 2015 est.)
$14.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 3.4%
male: 2.8%
female: 4.4% (2013 est.)
total: 0.5%
male: 0.7%
female: 0.4%
note: according to official statistics (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.9%
government consumption: 17.9%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: -1.4%
exports of goods and services: 65.4%
imports of goods and services: -56.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 78.5%
government consumption: 5.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 64.7%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving34.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
32% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ThailandCambodia
Electricity - production177.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption164 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production248,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports897,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports30,010 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves219.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production42.15 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption53.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports11.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity40 million kW (2014 est.)
1.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels90.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants6.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.273 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.231 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports241,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports75,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
36,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy301 million Mt (2013 est.)
6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 99.7%
electrification - rural areas: 98.3% (2013)
population without electricity: 9,900,000
electrification - total population: 34%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Telecommunications

ThailandCambodia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 5.309 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 256,387
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 84.797 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.851 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly
international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to over 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2015)
Internet country code.th
.kh
Internet userstotal: 26.726 million
percent of population: 39.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.985 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media26 digital TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally, 6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the stations are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2017)
mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available; roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)

Transportation

ThailandCambodia
Railwaystotal: 4,127 km
standard gauge: 84 km 1.435-m gauge (84 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 4,043 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 642 km
narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge
note: under restoration (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
total: 44,709 km
paved: 3,607 km
unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)
Waterways4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
container port(s) (TEUs): Bangkok (1,305,229), Laem Chabang (5,731,063)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Map Ta Phut
major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
Merchant marinetotal: 363
by type: bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)
registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)
total: 544
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)
Airports101 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 63
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 38
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports7 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

ThailandCambodia
Military branchesRoyal Thai Armed Forces (Kongthap Thai, RTARF): Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2017)
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force; the Royal Cambodian Gendarmerie is the military police force responsible for internal security; the National Committee for Maritime Security performs Coast Guard functions and has representation from military and civilian agencies (2016)
Military service age and obligation21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.42% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.49% of GDP (2011)
2% of GDP (2015 est.)
1.66% of GDP (2014)
1.58% of GDP (2013)
1.55% of GDP (2012)
1.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ThailandCambodia
Disputes - internationalseparatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011, Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; approximately 105,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
Illicit drugsa minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, China, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, and India, migrate to Thailand in search of jobs but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in commercial fishing, fishing-related industries, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex trade; some Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, and Indonesian men forced to work on fishing boats are kept at sea for years; sex trafficking of adults and children from Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma remains a significant problem; Thailand is a transit country for victims from China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Burma subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and countries in Western Europe; Thai victims are also trafficked in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, authorities investigated, prosecuted, and convicted fewer traffickers and identified fewer victims; some cases of official complicity were investigated and prosecuted, but trafficking-related corruption continues to hinder progress in combatting trafficking; authorities’ efforts to screen for victims among vulnerable populations remained inadequate due to a poor understanding of trafficking indicators, a failure to recognize non-physical forms of coercion, and a shortage of language interpreters; the government passed new labor laws increasing the minimum age in the fishing industry to 18 years old, guaranteeing the minimum wage, and requiring work contracts, but weak law enforcement and poor coordination among regulatory agencies enabled exploitive labor practices to continue; the government increased efforts to raise public awareness to the dangers of human trafficking and to deny entry to foreign sex tourists (2015)
current situation: Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the region and, increasingly, the Middle East for legitimate work but are subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, or forced labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and factories; Cambodian men recruited to work on Thai-owned fishing vessels are subsequently subjected to forced labor in international waters and are kept at sea for years; poor Cambodian children are vulnerable and, often with the families’ complicity, are subject to forced labor, including domestic servitude and forced begging, in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers and tourist spots for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, and the West travel to Cambodia for child sex tourism
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; authorities made modest progress in prosecutions and convictions of traffickers in 2014 but did not provide comprehensive data; endemic corruption continued to impede law enforcement efforts, and no complicit officials were prosecuted or convicted; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and refer them to NGOs for care, but victim protection remained inadequate, particularly for assisting male victims and victims identified abroad; a new national action plan was adopted, but guidelines for victim identification and guidance on undercover investigation techniques are still pending after several years (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook