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Tanzania vs. Uganda

Introduction

TanzaniaUganda
BackgroundShortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.
The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.

Geography

TanzaniaUganda
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates6 00 S, 35 00 E
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
Area - comparativemore than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
Coastline1,424 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrainplains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resourceshydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
Land useagricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6%
forest: 14.5%
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,840 sq km (2012)
140 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
NA
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - noteKilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

Demographics

TanzaniaUganda
Population52,482,726
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
38,319,241
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 48.26% (male 9,223,926/female 9,268,714)
15-24 years: 21.13% (male 4,010,464/female 4,087,350)
25-54 years: 26.1% (male 5,005,264/female 4,997,907)
55-64 years: 2.5% (male 460,000/female 496,399)
65 years and over: 2.01% (male 337,787/female 431,430) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 15.7 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 15.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.77% (2016 est.)
3.22% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
43.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 57.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.2 years
male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 55.4 years
male: 54 years
female: 56.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.8 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate4.69% (2015 est.)
7.07% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groupsmainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,385,800 (2015 est.)
1,461,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,700 (2015 est.)
28,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesKiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Education expenditures3.5% of GDP (2014)
1.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 16.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.6% (2011)
14.1% (2011)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
3.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,815,085
percentage: 21%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 and does not include Zanzibar (2006 est.)
total number: 117,266
percentage: 25%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2010 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileTanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.
Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.
Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s businesspeople and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.4% (2009/10)
34.3% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 93.8
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 102.3
youth dependency ratio: 97.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)

Government

TanzaniaUganda
Country nameconventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
"conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the Swahili ""Buganda,"" adopted by the British as the name for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo; note - four new districts, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Omoro, and Rubanda, have been reported, but not yet vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
National holidayUnion Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemEnglish common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016))
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limit); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
"description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (427 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 ""representatives"" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
"
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts ; local council courts; family and children courts
Political parties and leadersCivic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Mugisha MUNTU]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Political pressure groups and leadersEconomic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Twaweza
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA (since 6 June 2013)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
chief of mission: Ambsssador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
Flag descriptiondivided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
National anthem"name: ""Mungu ibariki Afrika"" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!""
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship

Economy

TanzaniaUganda
Economy - overviewTanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-16 averaged 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government.
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing more than one-third of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Uganda’s economy remains predominantly agricultural with a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs like oil and equipment. Overall productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including underinvestment in an agricultural sector that continues to rely on rudimentary technology. Industrial growth is impeded by high-costs due to poor infrastructure, low levels of private investment, and the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling.

Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes were especially aimed at dampening inflation while encouraging foreign investment to boost production and export earnings. Since 1990, economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, and better domestic security.

The global economic downturn in 2008 hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and a rapidly growing urban consumer population. Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as production starts in the next five to 10 years. However, lower oil prices since 2014 and protracted negotiations and legal disputes between the Ugandan government and oil companies may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. High energy costs, inadequate transportation and energy infrastructure, insufficient budgetary discipline, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence. During 2015 and 2016, the Uganda shilling depreciated 50% against the dollar.

The budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while relying on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through low-interest concessional loans. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$150.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140.6 billion (2015 est.)
$131.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$84.93 billion (2016 est.)
$80.92 billion (2015 est.)
$77.21 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.2% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
4.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,100 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.1%
industry: 27.6%
services: 47.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 24.5%
industry: 21%
services: 54.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.8% (2015 est.)
19.7% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.2% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
5.6% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
Labor force26.96 million (2016 est.)
19.03 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 71.9%
industry: 4.4%
services: 23.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
9.4% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index37.6 (2007)
34.6 (2000)
39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
Budgetrevenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.748 billion
expenditures: $5.41 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
Exports$5.985 billion (2016 est.)
$5.709 billion (2015 est.)
$2.723 billion (2016 est.)
$2.667 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partnersIndia 21.8%, China 8.2%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Rwanda 10.8%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.8%, Kenya 9.8%, Italy 5.8%, Netherlands 4.9%, Germany 4.8%, China 4.1% (2015)
Imports$9.976 billion (2016 est.)
$9.843 billion (2015 est.)
$4.677 billion (2016 est.)
$4.911 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesconsumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partnersChina 35.2%, India 13.7%, South Africa 4.5%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
Kenya 16.5%, UAE 15.6%, India 13.5%, China 13.1% (2015)
Debt - external$15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,182.3 (2016 est.)
1,989.7 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)
1,583 (2012 est.)
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,427 (2016 est.)
3,234.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
2,505.6 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
1 July - 30 June
Public debt36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
36.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
$2.851 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.909 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
Current Account Balance-$2.98 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.637 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.544 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.669 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$46.7 billion (2016 est.)
$25.61 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate8.25% (31 December 2010)
3.7% (31 December 2009)
14% (December 2014)
17% (30 March 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
22.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
22.6% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$11.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.287 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.973 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.957 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.262 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.705 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 5.8%
male: 4.5%
female: 7.2% (2013 est.)
total: 2.6%
male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 73.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TanzaniaUganda
Electricity - production6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
100 million kWh (2014)
Electricity - imports60 million kWh (2014 est.)
50 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
2.5 billion bbl
Natural gas - proved reserves6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
711,400 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
59.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
19.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
26,290 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10 million Mt (2013 est.)
2.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 32,100,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)

Telecommunications

TanzaniaUganda
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 142,819
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 328,811
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 39.666 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.22 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 54 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and fiber-optic cables through Kenya and the Indian Ocean
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 55 per 100 persons
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania (2015)
Internet country code.tz
.ug
Internet userstotal: 2.734 million
percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.131 million
percent of population: 19.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007, there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)

Transportation

TanzaniaUganda
Railwaystotal: 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 1,244 km
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
total: 20,000 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 3,264 km
unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)
Waterways(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
Airports166 (2013)
47 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
total: 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)

Military

TanzaniaUganda
Military branchesTanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
"18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, ""no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces""; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
"
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
0.92% of GDP (2011)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)
3.22% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TanzaniaUganda
Disputes - internationaldispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 50,324 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016); 244,127 (Burundi) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 950,562 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 218,981 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 48,439 (Burundi); 42,826 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 17,147 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 53,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook