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Tanzania vs. Kenya

Introduction

TanzaniaKenya
BackgroundShortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013.

Geography

TanzaniaKenya
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates6 00 S, 35 00 E
1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
total: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
Area - comparativemore than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundariestotal: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
total: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
Coastline1,424 km
536 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrainplains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
mean elevation: 762 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resourceshydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48.1%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
forest: 6.1%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,840 sq km (2012)
1,030 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteKilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Demographics

TanzaniaKenya
Population52,482,726
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
46,790,758
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 40.87% (male 9,592,017/female 9,532,032)
15-24 years: 18.83% (male 4,398,554/female 4,411,586)
25-54 years: 33.54% (male 7,938,111/female 7,755,128)
55-64 years: 3.84% (male 819,665/female 976,862)
65 years and over: 2.92% (male 590,961/female 775,842) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.77% (2016 est.)
1.81% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
25.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.2 years
male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64 years
male: 62.6 years
female: 65.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.14 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate4.69% (2015 est.)
5.91% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groupsmainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,385,800 (2015 est.)
1,517,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,700 (2015 est.)
35,800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesKiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
Education expenditures3.5% of GDP (2014)
5.3% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 31.2% of population
rural: 29.7% of population
total: 30.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population
rural: 70.3% of population
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.6% (2011)
11% (2014)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
5.9% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Demographic profileTanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya presently shelters nearly 400,000 Somali refugees.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.4% (2009/10)
66% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 93.8
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 80.9
youth dependency ratio: 75.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)

Government

TanzaniaKenya
Country nameconventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
"conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words ""kirinyaga,"" ""kirenyaa,"" and ""kiinyaa"" - all of which mean ""God's resting place""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
Independence26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
12 December 1963 (from the UK)
National holidayUnion Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Jamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2016)
Legal systemEnglish common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
description: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
Political parties and leadersCivic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
Political pressure groups and leadersEconomic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Twaweza
African Center for Open Governance [Gladwell OTIENO]
Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU, secretary general]

other: labor unions, other Christian churches
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
chief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
Flag descriptiondivided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
National anthem"name: ""Mungu ibariki Afrika"" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

Economy

TanzaniaKenya
Economy - overviewTanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-16 averaged 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government.
Kenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed March 2017 inflation above 9%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.

Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$150.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140.6 billion (2015 est.)
$131.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$152.7 billion (2016 est.)
$144.1 billion (2015 est.)
$136.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.2% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.1%
industry: 27.6%
services: 47.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 32.7%
industry: 18%
services: 49.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.8% (2015 est.)
43.4% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.2% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force26.96 million (2016 est.)
18.66 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
40% (2013 est.)
40% (2001 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index37.6 (2007)
34.6 (2000)
42.5 (2008 est.)
44.9 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $12.89 billion
expenditures: $17.85 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
Exports$5.985 billion (2016 est.)
$5.709 billion (2015 est.)
$6.363 billion (2016 est.)
$5.982 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partnersIndia 21.8%, China 8.2%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Uganda 10.7%, US 7.9%, Tanzania 7.7%, Netherlands 7%, Zambia 5.8%, UK 5.7% (2015)
Imports$9.976 billion (2016 est.)
$9.843 billion (2015 est.)
$16.34 billion (2016 est.)
$15.56 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesconsumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partnersChina 35.2%, India 13.7%, South Africa 4.5%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
China 30%, India 15.5%, UAE 5.7%, US 4.8%, Japan 4.7% (2015)
Debt - external$15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$20.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,182.3 (2016 est.)
1,989.7 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)
1,583 (2012 est.)
Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
102 (2016 est.)
98.179 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
84.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
1 July - 30 June
Public debt36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
50.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
48% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
$7.374 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.548 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.98 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.637 billion (2015 est.)
-$3.822 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.335 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$46.7 billion (2016 est.)
$69.17 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$5.537 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.662 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$NA (31 December 2016 est.)
$NA (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$22.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate8.25% (31 December 2010)
3.7% (31 December 2009)
11.5% (20 January 2016)
7% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
17.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.09% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$11.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$31.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.957 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.927 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-7.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 77.6%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 15.2%
imports of goods and services: -28% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TanzaniaKenya
Electricity - production6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
7.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
38 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports60 million kWh (2014 est.)
79 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
11,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
2.281 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
92,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
575 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
82,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10 million Mt (2013 est.)
13 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 35,400,000
electrification - total population: 20%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)

Telecommunications

TanzaniaKenya
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 142,819
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 85,496
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 39.666 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
total: 37.716 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 80 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2015)
Internet country code.tz
.ke
Internet userstotal: 2.734 million
percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.952 million
percent of population: 45.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)

Transportation

TanzaniaKenya
Railwaystotal: 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,806 km
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 472 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
total: 161,452 km
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
Waterways(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
Pipelinesgas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
Merchant marinetotal: 94
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 66, carrier 4, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 42 (Japan 1, Romania 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 23, Turkey 13, UAE 3)
registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 2, UK 1) (2010)
registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports166 (2013)
197 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
total: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 60 (2013)

Military

TanzaniaKenya
Military branchesTanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
0.92% of GDP (2011)
1.51% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.56% of GDP (2013)
1.67% of GDP (2012)
1.54% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TanzaniaKenya
Disputes - internationaldispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
Illicit drugstargeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia
widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 50,324 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016); 244,127 (Burundi) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 313,255 (Somalia); 104,700 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 29,894 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,640 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,881 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,086 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

Source: CIA Factbook