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Tanzania vs. Burundi

Introduction

TanzaniaBurundi
BackgroundShortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.
Burundi is a small country in East Africa bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, and Lake Tanganyika. Burundi gained its independence from Belgium in 1962. Much of its history has been turbulent, and Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office. The internationally brokered Arusha Agreement ended the 1993-2005 civil war, paving the way for a new constitution and 2005 elections. Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president in 2005 and 2010 and again in a controversial election in 2015. Burundi continues to face many political and economic challenges.

Geography

TanzaniaBurundi
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
Geographic coordinates6 00 S, 35 00 E
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km
Area - comparativemore than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
total: 1,140 km
border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
Coastline1,424 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrainplains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
mean elevation: 1,504 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resourceshydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land useagricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 73.3%
arable land 38.9%; permanent crops 15.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
forest: 6.6%
other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,840 sq km (2012)
230 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
flooding; landslides; drought
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteKilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

Demographics

TanzaniaBurundi
Population52,482,726
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
11,099,298
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.61% (male 2,545,895/female 2,516,480)
15-24 years: 19.17% (male 1,061,538/female 1,066,581)
25-54 years: 28.71% (male 1,589,506/female 1,597,081)
55-64 years: 3.94% (male 205,538/female 231,317)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 121,935/female 163,427) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.77% (2016 est.)
3.26% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.2 years
male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 60.5 years
male: 58.8 years
female: 62.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
6.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate4.69% (2015 est.)
1.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groupsmainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,385,800 (2015 est.)
77,400 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,700 (2015 est.)
3,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesKiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official) and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%
note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is widespread (2008 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Education expenditures3.5% of GDP (2014)
5.4% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 12.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.6% (2011)
29.1% (2011)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
2.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,815,085
percentage: 21%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 and does not include Zanzibar (2006 est.)
total number: 433,187
percentage: 19% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileTanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.
Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.4% (2009/10)
31.7% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 93.8
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 89.7
youth dependency ratio: 85
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.3 (2015 est.)

Government

TanzaniaBurundi
Country nameconventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holidayUnion Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
several previous; latest ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005 (2016)
Legal systemEnglish common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015(next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament
election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Independents of Hope) 19%, other 11.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (43 seats in the July 2015 election; 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats reserved for former heads of state, 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 8 seats for women; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members – 3 Twas and 18 women; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019); National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 33, FRODEBU 2, CNDD 1, and 4 seats reserved for heads of state, 3 seats for Twas, and 8 seats for women; National Assembly - percent of vote by party (preliminary results) - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Independents of Hope 11.2%, UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Independents of Hope 21, UPRONA 2, seats for women 18, seats for Twas 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president, and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court
Political parties and leadersCivic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Front for Democracy in Burundi or FRODEBU [Keffa NIBIZI]
Mouvement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Alexis SINDUHUE]
National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGITIMANA]
Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Abel GASHATSI]
Political pressure groups and leadersEconomic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Twaweza
Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC (civil society umbrella organization) [Vital NSHMIRIMANA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
chief of mission: Ambassador Ernest NDABASHINZE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne S. CASPER (since 2016)
embassy: Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B.P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 22-207-000
FAX: [257] 22-222-926
Flag descriptiondivided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
National anthem"name: ""Mungu ibariki Afrika"" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Burundi Bwacu"" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
note: adopted 1962
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
lion; national colors: red, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

TanzaniaBurundi
Economy - overviewTanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-16 averaged 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government.
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for more than 60% of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rest primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors. Foreign aid represented 48% of Burundi's national income in 2015, one of the highest percentages in Sub-Saharan Africa, but decreased to 33.5% in 2016. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009.

The 1993-2005 civil war resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Political stability, aid flows, and economic activity improved following the war’s end, but underlying weaknesses – low governmental capacity, a high poverty rate, poor educational levels, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, and overburdened utilities – have prevented the implementation of planned economic reforms. Government corruption has also hindered the development of a private sector. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept pace with inflation.

In 2015, Burundi’s economy suffered from political turmoil, including street protests and an attempted coup, following President NKURUNZIZA’s controversial announcement that he would run for a third term. Insecurity and refugee flows to neighboring countries slowed down economic activity and donors withdrew aid, increasing Burundi’s budget deficit and decreasing hard currency reserves. Real GDP growth dropped precipitously and has yet to recover to pre-conflict levels.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$150.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140.6 billion (2015 est.)
$131.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$7.892 billion (2016 est.)
$7.933 billion (2015 est.)
$8.259 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.2% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-4% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$800 (2016 est.)
$800 (2015 est.)
$900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.1%
industry: 27.6%
services: 47.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 45.8%
industry: 17.1%
services: 37.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.8% (2015 est.)
64.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.2% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
5.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force26.96 million (2016 est.)
5.255 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index37.6 (2007)
34.6 (2000)
42.4 (1998)
Budgetrevenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $525.1 million
expenditures: $656.9 million (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
light consumer goods ( sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
coffee, cotton, tea, corn, beans, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Exports$5.985 billion (2016 est.)
$5.709 billion (2015 est.)
$132.4 million (2016 est.)
$119.6 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partnersIndia 21.8%, China 8.2%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Germany 12.9%, Pakistan 11.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, Uganda 8.5%, Sweden 8.2%, US 7.5%, Belgium 6.6%, Rwanda 4.8%, France 4.6% (2015)
Imports$9.976 billion (2016 est.)
$9.843 billion (2015 est.)
$683.4 million (2016 est.)
$800.1 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesconsumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 35.2%, India 13.7%, South Africa 4.5%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
Kenya 15%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Belgium 10%, Tanzania 8.4%, Uganda 7.4%, China 7.1%, India 4.9%, France 4% (2015)
Debt - external$15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$705.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$684.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,182.3 (2016 est.)
1,989.7 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)
1,583 (2012 est.)
Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
1,665 (2016 est.)
1,571.9 (2015 est.)
1,571.9 (2014 est.)
1,546.7 (2013 est.)
1,442.51 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
$100.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$136.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.98 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.637 billion (2015 est.)
-$536 million (2016 est.)
-$661 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$46.7 billion (2016 est.)
$2.742 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate8.25% (31 December 2010)
3.7% (31 December 2009)
11.25% (31 December 2010)
10% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
13.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$11.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$809.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$851.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.957 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$364.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$523.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$571.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 92.4%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
investment in inventories: -8.1%
exports of goods and services: 7.5%
imports of goods and services: -32.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
-2.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TanzaniaBurundi
Electricity - production6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports60 million kWh (2014 est.)
100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption550 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
66,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1,636 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10 million Mt (2013 est.)
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 9,700,000
electrification - total population: 5%
electrification - urban areas: 28%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)

Telecommunications

TanzaniaBurundi
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 142,819
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 21,774
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 39.666 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.998 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased to roughly 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.tz
.bi
Internet userstotal: 2.734 million
percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 523,000
percent of population: 4.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
state-controlled Radio Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates a TV station and a national radio network; 3 private TV stations and about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2017)

Transportation

TanzaniaBurundi
Roadwaystotal: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
total: 12,322 km
paved: 1,500 km
unpaved: 10,822 km (2016)
Waterways(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
(mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
Airports166 (2013)
7 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Military

TanzaniaBurundi
Military branchesTanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, Air Wing), National Police (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement ages: 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), 55 (officers), and 60 (officers with the rank of general) (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
0.92% of GDP (2011)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
2.01% of GDP (2014)
2.24% of GDP (2013)
2.39% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TanzaniaBurundi
Disputes - internationaldispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 50,324 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016); 244,127 (Burundi) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 61,427 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 209,202 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2017)
stateless persons: 974 (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem; Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats; Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs; trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tanzania was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law; authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)
current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
tier rating: Tier 3 – Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; corruption, a lack of political will, and limited resources continue to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking; in 2014, the government did not inform judicial and law enforcement officials of the enactment of an anti-trafficking law or how to implement it and approved – but did not fund – its national anti-trafficking action plan; authorities again failed to identify trafficking victims or to provide them with adequate protective services; the government has focused on transnational child trafficking but gave little attention to its domestic child trafficking problem and adult trafficking victims (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook