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Tajikistan vs. Kyrgyzstan

Introduction

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Background"The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called ""basmachi"") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks by the Ministry of Interior led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. In May 2016, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated “Leader of the Nation” with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade in neighboring Afghanistan.
"
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Former Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV overwhelmingly won the presidential election in the summer of 2005. Over the next few years, he manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for the presidency. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won reelection in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual flight to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011, marking the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in independent Kyrgyzstan's history. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
Under the 2010 Constitution, ATAMBAEV is limited to one term, which will end in 2017. Constitutional amendments passed in a referendum in December 2016 include language that transfers some presidential powers to the prime minister. Disagreement over the constitutional amendments compelled ATAMBAEV’s Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan to dissolve the ruling coalition and create a new majority coalition in the Jogorku Kenesh that excluded opposition parties critical of the amendments.

Geography

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
LocationCentral Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 71 00 E
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Wisconsin
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundariestotal: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
total: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrainmountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 3,186 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
mean elevation: 2,988 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resourceshydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land useagricultural land: 34.7%
arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 55.4%
arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
forest: 5.1%
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land7,420 sq km (2012)
10,233 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; floods
NA
Environment - current issuesinadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Population distributionthe country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Demographics

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Population8,330,946 (July 2016 est.)
5,727,553 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 32.56% (male 1,380,959/female 1,331,790)
15-24 years: 19.04% (male 804,625/female 781,469)
25-54 years: 39.79% (male 1,640,657/female 1,674,198)
55-64 years: 5.37% (male 205,541/female 241,770)
65 years and over: 3.24% (male 112,279/female 157,658) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 30.12% (male 883,875/female 841,362)
15-24 years: 17.47% (male 508,656/female 492,046)
25-54 years: 39.68% (male 1,112,777/female 1,159,967)
55-64 years: 7.59% (male 189,684/female 245,202)
65 years and over: 5.13% (male 112,494/female 181,490) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.2 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 26.2 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 27.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.66% (2016 est.)
1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate23.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
22.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.7 years
male: 64.6 years
female: 71 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.7 years
male: 66.5 years
female: 75.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.64 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.31% (2015 est.)
0.22% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groupsTajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
Kyrgyz 70.9%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 7.7%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2015 est.)
8,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
HIV/AIDS - deaths800 (2015 est.)
200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesTajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures5.2% of GDP (2015)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 26.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 35.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 93.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
BISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.3% (2012)
2.8% (2014)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
6.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate12% (2014)
13.3% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 164,432
percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
total number: 563,920
percentage: 40.3%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
23.3 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate27.9% (2012)
42% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 60.9
youth dependency ratio: 56
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.3
youth dependency ratio: 48.8
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)

Government

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Tajikistan literally means ""Land of the Tajik [people]""
"
"conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""kyrg"" (forty) and ""-yz"" (tribes) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) creating the meaning ""Land of the Forty Tribes""; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
"
Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - the current constitution prohibits any change until 2020
amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two-thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for 2 terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 13 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president
election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV (SDPK) 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (All Kyrgyzstan) 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV (Homeland) 14.3%, other 7.8%; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 115 to 0
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, SPT 1, CPT 2, DPT 1
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.8%, other 14%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
Political parties and leadersAgrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj NASIMOV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Omurbek BABANOV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Isa OMURKULOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersGroup 24 [Sharofiddin GADOEV] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV (jailed in 2015)] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI (in exile)] (banned)
Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Bir Duino [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822-23
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Elisabeth MILLARD (since 11 March 2016)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
chief of mission: Ambassador Sheila GWALTNEY (14 October 2015)
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
Flag description"three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number ""seven"" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
"
"red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a ""tunduk"" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
"
National anthem"name: ""Surudi milli"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni"" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; national colors: red, white, green
gyrfalcon; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Economy - overviewTajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan officially contracted with Italian firm Salini Impregilo to construct the dam over a 13 year period for $3.9 billion.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to over one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis, declining oil prices, and regional economic headwinds have damaged economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 4-5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. While joining the EAEU has increased Kyrgyz labor mobility within member states, large scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow in developing since accession. Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians alike often contend that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states, particularly Kazakhstan, are negatively impacting sectors of the Kyrgyz economy that enjoy a comparative advantage, such as meat and dairy production. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to conform to Union standards, though many local entrepreneurs have criticized this process as disjointed and incomplete. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring and diversifying domestic industries, and attracting foreign aid and investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$25.81 billion (2016 est.)
$24.35 billion (2015 est.)
$22.97 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.01 billion (2016 est.)
$20.55 billion (2015 est.)
$19.87 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2014 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,000 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,500 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 20.7%
industry: 15.1%
services: 64.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 17.9%
industry: 25.9%
services: 56.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line31.5% (2016 est.)
32.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.1% (2016 est.)
10.8% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.295 million (2016 est.)
2.778 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
8% (2013 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $1.841 billion
expenditures: $1.985 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.04 billion
expenditures: $2.354 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate16% (2016 est.)
0% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Exports$898.7 million (2016 est.)
$572 million (2015 est.)
$1.453 billion (2016 est.)
$1.61 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
Exports - partnersTurkey 19.8%, Kazakhstan 17.6%, Switzerland 13.7%, Iran 8.7%, Afghanistan 7.5%, Russia 5.1%, China 4.9%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
Switzerland 26.1%, Uzbekistan 22.6%, Kazakhstan 20.8%, UAE 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Afghanistan 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2015)
Imports$3.031 billion (2016 est.)
$2.825 billion (2015 est.)
$3.146 billion (2016 est.)
$3.648 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 42.3%, Russia 18%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, Iran 4.7% (2015)
China 56.6%, Russia 17.2%, Kazakhstan 10% (2015)
Debt - external$2.3 billion (28 Januaary 2017 est.)
$3.938 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.728 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.364 (2016 est.)
6.1631 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
4.76 (2012 est.)
soms (KGS) per US dollar -
69.08 (2016 est.)
64.462 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)
47.01 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt6.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$416.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$494.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.838 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$352 million (2016 est.)
-$470 million (2015 est.)
-$615 million (2016 est.)
-$740 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$6.612 billion (2016 est.)
$5.794 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.897 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$331.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$331.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate16% (20 March 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2012)
5% (31 December 2016)
8% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate26% (31 December 2016 est.)
25.84% (31 December 2015 est.)
23.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.401 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$980.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$831.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$653.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$773 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.179 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$928.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.333 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.399 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues27.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
35.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.7%
male: 19.2%
female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
total: 13.4%
male: 12%
female: 15.8% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 116.1%
government consumption: 14.5%
investment in fixed capital: 13.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 22.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 77.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 30.6%
imports of goods and services: -55% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving12.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Electricity - production17.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption16.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exportsNA kWh (2016 est.)
72 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production181.6 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports78.6 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19.65 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
40 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production12 million cu m (2014 est.)
34 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption224 million cu m (2014 est.)
429 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports212 million cu m (2014 est.)
395 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity5.5 million kW (2016 est.)
3.9 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
21.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
78.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production445 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1,571 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption14,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
37,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports428 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports12,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
35,710 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 457,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 408,037
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 8.489 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.579 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to about 130 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2015)
Internet country code.tj
.kg
Internet userstotal: 1.555 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.713 million
percent of population: 30.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)

Transportation

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Railwaystotal: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
total: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 27,767 km (2000)
total: 34,000 km (2007)
Waterways200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
600 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)
Airports24 (2013)
28 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Military branchesGround Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
State Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO): Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.13% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2012)
1.09% of GDP (2011)
3.58% of GDP (2015)
3.38% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2013)
3.21% of GDP (2012)
3.4% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TajikistanKyrgyzstan
Disputes - internationalin 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
Illicit drugsmajor transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 17,002 (2016)
stateless persons: 2,334 (2016); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; between 2014 and 2016, Kyrgyzstan has resolved nearly 9,000 stateless cases; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits

Source: CIA Factbook