Home

Tajikistan vs. Afghanistan

Introduction

TajikistanAfghanistan
Background"The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called ""basmachi"") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks by the Ministry of Interior led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. In May 2016, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated “Leader of the Nation” with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade in neighboring Afghanistan.
"
Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN.
A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country's first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote-getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as president and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly-created position of chief executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan.
Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.

Geography

TajikistanAfghanistan
LocationCentral Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 71 00 E
33 00 N, 65 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
total: 652,230 sq km
land: 652,230 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Wisconsin
almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
total: 5,987 km
border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrainmountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 3,186 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
mean elevation: 1,884 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Noshak 7,485 m
Natural resourceshydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 34.7%
arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 46%
forest: 2.1%
other: 39.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land7,420 sq km (2012)
32,080 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; floods
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Environment - current issuesinadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelandlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Population distributionthe country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated

Demographics

TajikistanAfghanistan
Population8,330,946 (July 2016 est.)
33,332,025 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 32.56% (male 1,380,959/female 1,331,790)
15-24 years: 19.04% (male 804,625/female 781,469)
25-54 years: 39.79% (male 1,640,657/female 1,674,198)
55-64 years: 5.37% (male 205,541/female 241,770)
65 years and over: 3.24% (male 112,279/female 157,658) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 41.03% (male 6,947,939/female 6,728,983)
15-24 years: 22.49% (male 3,816,369/female 3,678,657)
25-54 years: 30.01% (male 5,095,905/female 4,907,019)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 640,813/female 660,121)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 396,124/female 460,095) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.2 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.66% (2016 est.)
2.34% (2016 est.)
Birth rate23.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 112.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 120.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.7 years
male: 64.6 years
female: 71 years (2016 est.)
total population: 51.3 years
male: 49.9 years
female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.31% (2015 est.)
0.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
Ethnic groupsTajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2015 est.)
6,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths800 (2015 est.)
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesTajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca
note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.2%
male: 52%
female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures5.2% of GDP (2015)
3.4% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 26.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 26.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.2% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 55.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.8% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 45.1% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 31.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 54.9% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
8.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate12% (2014)
2.4% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 164,432
percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
total number: 2,082,722
percentage: 25.3%
note: data on child labor in Afghanistan is uncertain and may be higher than the estimated 25.3% of children ages 5-14 derived from 2010-11 survey results; UNICEF estimated that 30% of children ages 5-14 in 2011 were engaged in child labor (2010/11 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate27.9% (2012)
21.2% (2010/11)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 60.9
youth dependency ratio: 56
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 87
youth dependency ratio: 82.3
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Government

TajikistanAfghanistan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Tajikistan literally means ""Land of the Tajik [people]""
"
"conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
local short form: Afghanistan
former: Republic of Afghanistan
etymology: the name ""Afghan"" originally referred to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to include all the country's ethnic groups), while the suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country""; so Afghanistan literally means the ""Land of the Afghans""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential Islamic republic
Capitalname: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Kabul
geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul
Independence9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
National holidayIndependence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
history: several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004
amendments: proposed by a commission formed by presidential decree followed by the convention of a Grand Council (Loya Jirga) decreed by the president; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Loya Jirga membership and endorsement by the president (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for 2 terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014 ); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014 ); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 26 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote in first round - Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in second round - Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, SPT 1, CPT 2, DPT 1
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3-year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincial councils to serve 4-year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 must represent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (249 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it consists of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no constitutional Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected; the president appointed 34 members of the Meshrano Jirga that the district councils should have indirectly elected
elections: the Wolesi Jirga’s five-year term expired in 2015, but the president extended its term by decree until elections can be held
election results: results by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the supreme court chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)
judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles
Political parties and leadersAgrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj NASIMOV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 67 political parties as of September 2015
Political pressure groups and leadersGroup 24 [Sharofiddin GADOEV] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV (jailed in 2015)] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI (in exile)] (banned)
other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Elisabeth MILLARD (since 11 March 2016)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Special Charge d'Affaires Hugo Llorens (since December 2016)
embassy: Bibi Mahru, Kabul
mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
telephone: [00 93] 0700 108 001
FAX: [00 93] 0700 108 564
Flag description"three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number ""seven"" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
"
"three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning ""God is great""), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam
note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century - 19 by one count - than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them
"
National anthem"name: ""Surudi milli"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Milli Surood"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase ""Allahu Akbar"" (God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; national colors: red, white, green
lion; national colors: red, green, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

TajikistanAfghanistan
Economy - overviewTajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan officially contracted with Italian firm Salini Impregilo to construct the dam over a 13 year period for $3.9 billion.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
Afghanistan is gradually recovering from decades of conflict. Before 2014, the economy had sustained nearly a decade of strong growth, largely because of international assistance. Since 2014, however, the economy has slowed, in large part because of the withdrawal of nearly 100,000 foreign troops that had artificially inflated the country’s economic growth. Despite improvements in life expectancy, incomes, and literacy since 2001, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Corruption, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.

The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $83 billion at ten donors' conferences between 2003 and 2016. In October 2016, the donors at the Brussels conference pledged an additional $3.8 billion in development aid annually from 2017 to 2020. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure.

In 2016 Afghanistan's growth rate was only marginally above that of 2014 and 2015. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2012 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$25.81 billion (2016 est.)
$24.35 billion (2015 est.)
$22.97 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$64.08 billion (2016 est.)
$62.82 billion (2015 est.)
$62.35 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
1.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,000 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 20.7%
industry: 15.1%
services: 64.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 22%
industry: 22%
services: 56%
note: data exclude opium production (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line31.5% (2016 est.)
35.8% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 24% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.1% (2016 est.)
10.8% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
-1.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.295 million (2016 est.)
7.983 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 78.6%
industry: 5.7%
services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
35% (2008 est.)
40% (2005 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.841 billion
expenditures: $1.985 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.992 billion
expenditures: $6.636 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Industrial production growth rate16% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies
Exports$898.7 million (2016 est.)
$572 million (2015 est.)
$658 million (2014 est.)
$2.679 billion (2013 est.)
note: not including illicit exports or reexports
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Exports - partnersTurkey 19.8%, Kazakhstan 17.6%, Switzerland 13.7%, Iran 8.7%, Afghanistan 7.5%, Russia 5.1%, China 4.9%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
India 43.6%, Pakistan 28.3%, Tajikistan 7.4% (2015)
Imports$3.031 billion (2016 est.)
$2.825 billion (2015 est.)
$7.004 billion (2014 est.)
$12.19 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partnersChina 42.3%, Russia 18%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, Iran 4.7% (2015)
Pakistan 39.1%, India 9%, US 8.4%, Turkmenistan 6.3%, China 6.1%, Kazakhstan 6% (2015)
Debt - external$2.3 billion (28 Januaary 2017 est.)
$3.938 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.28 billion (FY10/11)
$2.7 billion (FY08/09)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.364 (2016 est.)
6.1631 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
4.76 (2012 est.)
afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
61.14 (2016 est.)
61.14 (2015 est.)
61.14 (2014 est.)
57.25 (2013 est.)
46.45 (2010)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
21 December - 20 December
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$416.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$494.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.681 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance-$352 million (2016 est.)
-$470 million (2015 est.)
$1.337 billion (2016 est.)
$564 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$6.612 billion (2016 est.)
$18.4 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate26% (31 December 2016 est.)
25.84% (31 December 2015 est.)
15% (31 December 2015 est.)
15% (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.401 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$-454 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$-767.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of narrow money$653.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$773 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues27.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 116.1%
government consumption: 14.5%
investment in fixed capital: 13.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 22.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 108.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 6.6%
imports of goods and services: -46.2% (2014 est.)
Gross national saving12.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
20% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

TajikistanAfghanistan
Electricity - production17.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption16.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
4.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exportsNA kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production181.6 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports78.6 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production12 million cu m (2014 est.)
159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption224 million cu m (2014 est.)
159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports212 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity5.5 million kW (2016 est.)
600,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
35.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
64.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production445 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption14,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
130,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports428 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports12,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
127,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 18,999,254
electrification - total population: 43%
electrification - urban areas: 83%
electrification - rural areas: 32% (2012)

Telecommunications

TajikistanAfghanistan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 457,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 110,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 8.489 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (July 2015 est.)
total: 19.709 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 61 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services
international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2012)
Internet country code.tj
.af
Internet userstotal: 1.555 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.69 million
percent of population: 8.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

TajikistanAfghanistan
Roadwaystotal: 27,767 km (2000)
total: 42,150 km
paved: 12,350 km
unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)
Waterways200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
gas 466 km (2013)
Airports24 (2013)
43 (2016)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2016)

Military

TajikistanAfghanistan
Military branchesGround Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF): Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan National Police, Afghan Local Police (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.13% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2012)
1.09% of GDP (2011)
1.01% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2013)
1.14% of GDP (2012)
1.78% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

TajikistanAfghanistan
Disputes - internationalin 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
Illicit drugsmajor transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due to poor weather kept potential opium production - 6,300 metric tons - below the record set in 2007; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 17,002 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 59,737 (Pakistan) (2016)
IDPs: 1.553 million (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and political instability) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook