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Sweden vs. Norway

Introduction

SwedenNorway
BackgroundA military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Geography

SwedenNorway
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates62 00 N, 15 00 E
62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
Area - comparativealmost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
total: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km
Coastline3,218 km
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetemperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrainmostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
mean elevation: 460 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resourcesiron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%
forest: 68.7%
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 2.7%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%
forest: 27.8%
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,640 sq km (2012)
900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
rockslides, avalanches
volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
Environment - current issuesacid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
Population distributionmost Swedes live in the south where there the climate is more mild and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Demographics

SwedenNorway
Population9,880,604 (July 2016 est.)
5,265,158 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.28% (male 878,463/female 829,266)
15-24 years: 11.63% (male 591,495/female 557,229)
25-54 years: 39.38% (male 1,976,752/female 1,914,623)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 574,175/female 570,424)
65 years and over: 20.12% (male 915,861/female 1,072,316) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 18.02% (male 486,408/female 462,178)
15-24 years: 12.8% (male 345,785/female 327,969)
25-54 years: 40.98% (male 1,112,006/female 1,045,791)
55-64 years: 11.7% (male 311,528/female 304,267)
65 years and over: 16.51% (male 398,203/female 471,023) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 39.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.81% (2016 est.)
1.07% (2016 est.)
Birth rate12 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 82.1 years
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.8 years
male: 79.8 years
female: 83.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.88 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.86 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.18% (2014 est.)
0.15% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groupsindigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; most common countries of origin among immigrants: Finland, Syria, Iraq, Poland, Iran
Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
5,800 (2014 est.)
ReligionsChurch of Sweden (Lutheran) 63%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 17% (2016 est.)
Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2014 est.)
less than 100 (2014 est.)
LanguagesSwedish (official)
note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2015)
Education expenditures7.7% of GDP (2013)
7.4% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 85.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 80.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSTOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)
OSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures11.9% of GDP (2014)
9.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
4.42 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.54 beds/1,000 population (2014)
3.85 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22% (2014)
24.8% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.9 years (2010 est.)
28.5 years
note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2012 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 59.3
youth dependency ratio: 27.5
elderly dependency ratio: 31.8
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.2
youth dependency ratio: 27.3
elderly dependency ratio: 24.9
potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)

Government

SwedenNorway
Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
"conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words ""nordr"" and ""vegr"" meaning ""northern way"" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
"
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Independence6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holidayNational Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Constitution"history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the ""Instrument of Government"") (2016)
"
history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2015
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Legislative branch"description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in ""at-large"" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held in September 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, L 5.4%, KD 4.6%, others 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, L 19, KD 16
"
description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - informal center-right bloc 54.0% (H 26.3%, FrP 16.3%, KrF 5.6%, V 5.2%), informal Red-Green blod 40.6% (Ap 30.8%, SP 5.5%, SV 4.1%), MDG 2.8, other 2.7%; seats by party - informal center-right bloc 96 (H 48, FrP 29, KrF 10, V 9), informal Red-Green bloc 72 (Ap 55, Sp 10, SV 7), MDG 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance and appellate general and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
Political parties and leadersCenter Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Gustav FRIDOLIN]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Anna KINBERG BATRA]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Hilde OPOKU]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naringsliv) [Carola LEMNE]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO [Goran ARRIUS]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO [Eva NORDMARK]
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Karl-Petter THORWALDSSON]
other: environmental groups; media
Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bjorn O. LYRVALL (since 12 September 2013)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 22 August 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 459-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David E. LINDWALL (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James P. DEHART (since 21 January 2017)
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
Flag descriptionblue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
National anthem"name: ""Du Gamla, Du Fria"" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional
note: in use since 1844; also known as ""Sang till Norden"" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; ""Kungssangen"" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
"
"name: ""Ja, vi elsker dette landet"" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK
note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, ""Kongesangen"" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of ""God Save the Queen,"" serves as the royal anthem
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
lion; national colors: red, white, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

SwedenNorway
Economy - overviewSweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade.

Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-16, with real GDP growth above 2%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer of seafood and the world’s second largest exporter, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2016 was close to 50% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period. After a continual decline from 2001 to 2013, oil production rose in 2016 for the third year running, due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at almost $900 billion as of early 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a “fiscal rule,” which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and Fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017 the Government revised the expected rate of return for the Fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2016. Lower oil prices in 2015 and 2016 caused growth to slow, increased unemployment, and weakened the Norwegian krone. The latter trend has mitigated the negative impact of lower oil and gas prices by making Norwegian exports cheaper for foreign buyers. The government has expressed willingness to increase public spending from the sovereign wealth fund to help prevent a recession.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$498.1 billion (2016 est.)
$482.2 billion (2015 est.)
$463.2 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$364.7 billion (2016 est.)
$361.7 billion (2015 est.)
$356 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
2.6% (2014 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$49,700 (2016 est.)
$48,800 (2015 est.)
$47,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$69,300 (2016 est.)
$69,500 (2015 est.)
$69,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.7%
industry: 34.2%
services: 64% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 34.7%
services: 63.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line15% (2014 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1% (2016 est.)
0% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.898 million (2016 est.)
2.794 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate6.9% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2015 est.)
4.4% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $248.3 billion
expenditures: $250.2 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $199.8 billion
expenditures: $188.8 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesiron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate2.4% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Exports$147.3 billion (2016 est.)
$151.1 billion (2015 est.)
$92.4 billion (2016 est.)
$102.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partnersNorway 10.3%, Germany 10.3%, US 7.7%, UK 7.2%, Denmark 6.8%, Finland 6.7%, Netherlands 5.2%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2015)
UK 22.2%, Germany 17.9%, Netherlands 10.2%, France 6.6%, Sweden 6.1%, Belgium 5%, US 4.5% (2015)
Imports$134.9 billion (2016 est.)
$137.3 billion (2015 est.)
$73.02 billion (2016 est.)
$75.79 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersGermany 17.9%, Netherlands 8.1%, Norway 7.8%, Denmark 7.7%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, Finland 4.6%, France 4.3%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Sweden 12%, Germany 11.8%, China 10.9%, UK 6.7%, US 6.6%, Denmark 6% (2015)
Debt - external$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
Exchange ratesSwedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.569 (2016 est.)
8.4335 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
6.77 (2012 est.)
Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.615 (2016 est.)
8.0646 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
5.82 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt31% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
32.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$59.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$55.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$64.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance$23.84 billion (2016 est.)
$23.27 billion (2015 est.)
$17.04 billion (2016 est.)
$33.48 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$511.4 billion (2016 est.)
$376.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$390.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$380.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$206.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$201.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$465.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$445 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$192.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate"-0.5% (31 December 2016)
-0.35% (31 December 2015)
note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a ""Reference rate"" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate
"
6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
1.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.75% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$747.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$749.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$549.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$527.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$278.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$255.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$206.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$200.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$339.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$318.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$323.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$310 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues48% of GDP (2016 est.)
53.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 22.9%
male: 24.2%
female: 21.5% (2014 est.)
total: 7.9%
male: 9.1%
female: 6.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 45%
government consumption: 25.8%
investment in fixed capital: 24.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 44%
government consumption: 24.3%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 5.4%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -33.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving30.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
35.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
37.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
40.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SwedenNorway
Electricity - production158.9 billion kWh (2015 est.)
149.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption126.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
133.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports22.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports9.294 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.61 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports410,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
22,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports23,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.255 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
5.1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
1.922 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2015 est.)
108.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption214.2 million cu m (2015 est.)
5.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
114.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports769 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity39 million kW (2014 est.)
33.8 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels8.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
4.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants47% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
92.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels34% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources10.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
2.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production426,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
352,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption291,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
218,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports298,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
403,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports174,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
98,760 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy62 million Mt (2015 est.)
53.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

SwedenNorway
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,554,665
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,029,545
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12.639 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.841 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2015)
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2015)
Internet country code.se
.no
Internet userstotal: 8.881 million
percent of population: 90.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.042 million
percent of population: 96.8% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediapublicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)
state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2017)

Transportation

SwedenNorway
Railwaystotal: 14,127 km
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
total: 4,250 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways)
paved: 140,100 km
unpaved: 433,034 km
note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads (2016)
total: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)
paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
Waterways2,052 km (2010)
1,577 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 1,626 km (2013)
gas 8,520 km; oil/condensate 1,304 km (2017)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
Merchant marinetotal: 190
by type: bulk carrier 7, general dry cargo 8, anti-pollution vessel 1, cable layer 2, dredge 2, ice 6, inspection 7, survey 6, training 4, tug 11, multi-purpose 1, passenger/ferry 26, ro-pax 38, ro-ro 29, ro-ro/container 4, tanker (ej gas) 37, tanker (LNG) 1
foreign: 275 (Bahamas 7, Barbados 3, Bermuda 20, Cayman Islands 1, Cook Islands 2, Cyprus 14, Danish Int’l 20, Denmark 2, Faeroe Islands 19, Finland 2, France 1, Germany 5, Gibraltar 19, Italy 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 10, Madeira 11, Malaysia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 7, Netherlands 35, Norway 2, Norwegian International 25, Panama 3, Russia 2, Singapore 16, Spain 2, St. Kitts and Nevis 1, St. Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, UK 24) (2015)
total: 585
by type: bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49
foreign-owned: 81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)
registered in other countries: 974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kong 48, Indonesia 3, Isle of Man 30, Italy 6, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 96, Marshall Islands 75, Netherlands 19, Panama 81, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 153, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 32, US 17, Vanuatu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Airports231 (2013)
95 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
total: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

SwedenNorway
Military branchesSwedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2016)
Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, is due to be reinstated in 2018 (2017)
19-35 years of age for male and female compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.1% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2013)
1.14% of GDP (2012)
1.12% of GDP (2011)
1.54% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.47% of GDP (2015)
1.51% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SwedenNorway
Disputes - internationalnone
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 96,914 (Syria); 22,548 (Eritrea); 21,693 (Iraq); 21,501 (Somalia); 16,558 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 36,036 (2016); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia
refugees (country of origin): 15,062 (Eritrea); 11,537 (Syria); 8,379 (Somalia); 6,568 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,251 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook