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Swaziland vs. South Africa

Introduction

SwazilandSouth Africa
BackgroundAutonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, Africa's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but the legal status of political parties was not defined and their status remains unclear. Swaziland has surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.
"Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (Afrikaners, called ""Boers"" (farmers) by the British) trekked north to found their own republics, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Afrikaners resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Second South African War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 following the end of apartheid ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa has since struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting came to a head in 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI was recalled by Parliament, and Deputy President Kgalema MOTLANTHE, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in 2009; he was reelected in 2014.
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Geography

SwazilandSouth Africa
LocationSouthern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Geographic coordinates26 30 S, 31 30 E
29 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 17,364 sq km
land: 17,204 sq km
water: 160 sq km
total: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than New Jersey
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 546 km
border countries (2): Mozambique 108 km, South Africa 438 km
total: 5,244 km
border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
2,798 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatevaries from tropical to near temperate
mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrainmostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 305 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
mean elevation: 1,034 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
Natural resourcesasbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land useagricultural land: 68.3%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 57.7%
forest: 31.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 79.4%
arable land 9.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 69.2%
forest: 7.6%
other: 13% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land500 sq km (2012)
16,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdrought
prolonged droughts
volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
Environment - current issueslimited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

Demographics

SwazilandSouth Africa
Population1,451,428
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
54,300,704
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 35.5% (male 260,507/female 254,811)
15-24 years: 22.19% (male 162,880/female 159,229)
25-54 years: 34.12% (male 256,696/female 238,471)
55-64 years: 4.28% (male 24,758/female 37,399)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 21,842/female 34,835) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 28.34% (male 7,718,511/female 7,667,830)
15-24 years: 18.07% (male 4,865,807/female 4,943,707)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 11,372,944/female 11,130,874)
55-64 years: 6.59% (male 1,662,874/female 1,915,908)
65 years and over: 5.57% (male 1,269,551/female 1,752,698) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.4 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 21.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 26.8 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 27 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.1% (2016 est.)
0.99% (2016 est.)
Birth rate24.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
20.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.66 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 32 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 51.6 years
male: 52.2 years
female: 51 years (2016 est.)
total population: 63.1 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate28.8% (2015 est.)
19.2% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
Ethnic groupsAfrican 97%, European 3%
black African 80.2%, white 8.4%, colored 8.8%, Indian/Asian 2.5%
note: colored is a term used in South Africa, including on the national census, for persons of mixed race ancestry (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS218,600 (2015 est.)
6,984,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 90% (Zionist - a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship - 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, other 30% - includes Anglican, Methodist, Mormon, Jehovah's Witness), Muslim 2%, other 8% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, indigenous religionist, Jewish) (2015 est.)
Protestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,800 (2015 est.)
182,400 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
IsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 87.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2012)
Education expenditures7.1% of GDP (2014)
6.1% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 21.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 64.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.6% of population
rural: 68.9% of population
total: 74.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.4% of population
rural: 31.1% of population
total: 25.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 63.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 57.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 36.9% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 42.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 66.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMBABANE (capital) 66,000 (2014)
Johannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni) 9.399 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.66 million; Durban 2.901 million; PRETORIA (capital) 2.059 million; Port Elizabeth 1.179 million; Vereeniging 1.155 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate389 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
138 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.8% (2014)
8.7% (2008)
Health expenditures9.3% of GDP (2014)
8.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.15 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.77 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.8% (2014)
25.6% (2014)
Demographic profileSwaziland, a small, predominantly rural, landlocked country surrounded by South Africa and Mozambique, suffers from severe poverty and the world’s highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. A weak and deteriorating economy, high unemployment, rapid population growth, and an uneven distribution of resources all combine to worsen already persistent poverty and food insecurity, especially in rural areas. Erratic weather (frequent droughts and intermittent heavy rains and flooding), overuse of small plots, the overgrazing of cattle, and outdated agricultural practices reduce crop yields and further degrade the environment, exacerbating Swaziland’s poverty and subsistence problems. Swaziland’s extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate – more than 28% of adults have the disease – compounds these issues. Agricultural production has declined due to HIV/AIDS, as the illness causes households to lose manpower and to sell livestock and other assets to pay for medicine and funerals.
Swazis, mainly men from the country’s rural south, have been migrating to South Africa to work in coal, and later gold, mines since the late 19th century. Although the number of miners abroad has never been high in absolute terms because of Swaziland’s small population, the outflow has had important social and economic repercussions. The peak of mining employment in South Africa occurred during the 1980s. Cross-border movement has accelerated since the 1990s, as increasing unemployment has pushed more Swazis to look for work in South Africa (creating a “brain drain” in the health and educational sectors); southern Swazi men have continued to pursue mining, although the industry has downsized. Women now make up an increasing share of migrants and dominate cross-border trading in handicrafts, using the proceeds to purchase goods back in Swaziland. Much of today’s migration, however, is not work-related but focuses on visits to family and friends, tourism, and shopping.
South Africa’s youthful population is gradually aging, as the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined dramatically from about 6 children per woman in the 1960s to roughly 2.2 in 2014. This pattern is similar to fertility trends in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa, and sets South Africa apart from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, where the average TFR remains higher than other regions of the world. Today, South Africa’s decreasing number of reproductive age women is having fewer children, as women increase their educational attainment, workforce participation, and use of family planning methods; delay marriage; and opt for smaller families.
As the proportion of working-age South Africans has grown relative to children and the elderly, South Africa has been unable to achieve a demographic dividend because persistent high unemployment and the prevalence of HIV/AIDs have created a larger-than-normal dependent population. HIV/AIDS was also responsible for South Africa’s average life expectancy plunging to less than 43 years in 2008; it had only rebounded to approximately 50 years as of 2014. HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious public health threat, although awareness-raising campaigns and the wider availability of anti-retroviral drugs is stabilizing the number of new cases, enabling infected individuals to live longer, healthier lives, and reducing mother-child transmissions.
Migration to South Africa began in the second half of the 17th century when traders from the Dutch East India Company settled in the Cape and started using slaves from South and southeast Asia (mainly from India but also from present-day Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia) and southeast Africa (Madagascar and Mozambique) as farm laborers and, to a lesser extent, as domestic servants. The Indian subcontinent remained the Cape Colony’s main source of slaves in the early 18th century, while slaves were increasingly obtained from southeast Africa in the latter part of the 18th century and into the 19th century under British rule.
After slavery was completely abolished in the British Empire in 1838, South Africa’s colonists turned to temporary African migrants and indentured labor through agreements with India and later China, countries that were anxious to export workers to alleviate domestic poverty and overpopulation. Of the more than 150,000 indentured Indian laborers hired to work in Natal’s sugar plantations between 1860 and 1911, most exercised the right as British subjects to remain permanently (a small number of Indian immigrants came freely as merchants). Because of growing resentment toward Indian workers, the 63,000 indentured Chinese workers who mined gold in Transvaal between 1904 and 1911 were under more restrictive contracts and generally were forced to return to their homeland.
In the late 19th century and nearly the entire 20th century, South Africa’s then British colonies’ and Dutch states’ enforced selective immigration policies that welcomed “assimilable” white Europeans as permanent residents but excluded or restricted other immigrants. Following the Union of South Africa’s passage of a law in 1913 prohibiting Asian and other non-white immigrants and its elimination of the indenture system in 1917, temporary African contract laborers from neighboring countries became the dominant source of labor in the burgeoning mining industries. Others worked in agriculture and smaller numbers in manufacturing, domestic service, transportation, and construction. Throughout the 20th century, at least 40% of South Africa’s miners were foreigners; the numbers peaked at over 80% in the late 1960s. Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland were the primary sources of miners, and Malawi and Zimbabwe were periodic suppliers.
Under apartheid, a “two gates” migration policy focused on policing and deporting illegal migrants rather than on managing migration to meet South Africa’s development needs. The exclusionary 1991 Aliens Control Act limited labor recruitment to the highly skilled as defined by the ruling white minority, while bilateral labor agreements provided exemptions that enabled the influential mining industry and, to a lesser extent, commercial farms, to hire temporary, low-paid workers from neighboring states. Illegal African migrants were often tacitly allowed to work for low pay in other sectors but were always under threat of deportation.
The abolishment of apartheid in 1994 led to the development of a new inclusive national identity and the strengthening of the country’s restrictive immigration policy. Despite South Africa’s protectionist approach to immigration, the downsizing and closing of mines, and rising unemployment, migrants from across the continent believed that the country held work opportunities. Fewer African labor migrants were issued temporary work permits and, instead, increasingly entered South Africa with visitors’ permits or came illegally, which drove growth in cross-border trade and the informal job market. A new wave of Asian immigrants has also arrived over the last two decades, many operating small retail businesses.
In the post-apartheid period, increasing numbers of highly skilled white workers emigrated, citing dissatisfaction with the political situation, crime, poor services, and a reduced quality of life. The 2002 Immigration Act and later amendments were intended to facilitate the temporary migration of skilled foreign labor to fill labor shortages, but instead the legislation continues to create regulatory obstacles. Although the education system has improved and brain drain has slowed in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis, South Africa continues to face skills shortages in several key sectors, such as health care and technology.
South Africa’s stability and economic growth has acted as a magnet for refugees and asylum seekers from nearby countries, despite the prevalence of discrimination and xenophobic violence. Refugees have included an estimated 350,000 Mozambicans during its 1980s civil war and, more recently, several thousand Somalis, Congolese, and Ethiopians. Nearly all of the tens of thousands of Zimbabweans who have applied for asylum in South Africa have been categorized as economic migrants and denied refuge.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 69.3
youth dependency ratio: 63.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 44.5
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)

Government

SwazilandSouth Africa
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
etymology: ""Land of the Swazi"" people; the name ""Swazi"" derives from 19th century King MSWATI II, under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified
"
"conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's location on the continent; ""Africa"" is derived from the Roman designation of the area corresponding to present-day Tunisia ""Africa terra,"" which meant ""Land of the Afri"" (the tribe resident in that area), but which eventually came to mean the entire continent
"
Government typeabsolute monarchy
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Mbabane (administrative capital); Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
Independence6 September 1968 (from the UK)
31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
National holidayIndependence Day (Somhlolo Day), 6 September (1968)
Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Constitutionprevious 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2016)
several previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1996, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
mixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Paul DLAMINI (since 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among elected members of the House of Assembly
chief of state: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 10 members appointed by the monarch; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held on 20 September 2013 (next scheduled for September 2018)
election results: House of Assembly - no results of the election were released; note - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; for each constituency the candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10-member delegations appointed by each of the 9 provincial legislatures to serve 5-year terms; note - this council has special powers to protect regional interests, including safeguarding cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 60, DA 20, EFF 7, IFP 1, NFP 1, UDM 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, UDM 1.0%, other 4.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, UDM 4, other 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 12 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices
subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)
note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Services Commission (JSC), a 23-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes other judges and judicial executives, members of parliament, practicing lawyers and advocates, a teacher of law, and several members designated by the national president; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service by terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts
Political parties and leadersthe status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution; the following are considered political associations:
African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Sibusiso DLAMINI]
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Alvit DLAMINI]
People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU]
Swaziland Democratic Party or SWADEPA [Jan SITHOLE]
African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALD]
African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]
African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI]
Agang SA [Mike Tshishonga]
Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
Democratic Alliance or DA [Mmusi MAIMANE]
Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA]
Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter GROENEWALD]
Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA]
United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Political pressure groups and leadersSwaziland United Democratic Front or SUDF
Trade Union Congress of Swaziland or TUCOSWA
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Sdumo DLAMINI, president]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]
South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president]
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, NSG, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Njabuliso Busisiwe Sikhulile GWEBU (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
chief of mission: Ambassador Mninwa Johannes MAHLANGU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400 [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lisa PETERSON (since January 2016)
embassy: corner of MR 103 and Cultural Center Drive, Ezulwini
mailing address: P.O. Box D202, The Gables, H106
telephone: [268] 2417-9000
FAX: [268] 2416-3344
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jessica LAPENN (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally; blue stands for peace and stability, red represents past struggles, and yellow the mineral resources of the country; the shield, spears, and staff symbolize protection from the country's enemies, while the black and white of the shield are meant to portray black and white people living in peaceful coexistence
"two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band that splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes; the flag colors do not have any official symbolism, but the Y stands for the ""convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity""; black, yellow, and green are found on the flag of the African National Congress, while red, white, and blue are the colors in the flags of the Netherlands and the UK, whose settlers ruled South Africa during the colonial era
note: the South African flag is one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Sudan's
"
National anthem"name: ""Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati"" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT
note: adopted 1968; uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles
"
"name: ""National Anthem of South Africa""
lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers
note: adopted 1994; a combination of ""N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica"" (God Bless Africa) and ""Die Stem van Suid Afrika"" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion, elephant; national colors: blue, yellow, red
springbok (antelope), king protea flower; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Swaziland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year

Economy

SwazilandSouth Africa
Economy - overviewA small, landlocked kingdom, Swaziland is bordered in the north, west and south by the Republic of South Africa and by Mozambique in the east. Swaziland depends on South Africa for 60% of its exports and for more than 90% of its imports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively relinquishing Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) for 49% of revenue; income tax accounts for 27% and a valued added tax for 19% of revenues. Swaziland is a lower middle income country, but its income distribution is highly skewed, with an estimated 20% of the population controlling 80% of the nation’s wealth. As of 2017, more than one-quarter of the adult population was infected by HIV/AIDS; Swaziland has the world’s highest HIV prevalence rate.

Subsistence agriculture employs approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector diversified in the 1980s and 1990s, but manufacturing has grown little in the last decade. Sugar and soft drink concentrate are the largest foreign exchange earners. Mining has declined in importance in recent years. Coal, gold, diamond, and quarry stone mines are small scale, and the only iron ore mine closed in 2014.

With an estimated 28% unemployment rate, Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and to attract foreign direct investment is acute. On 1 January 2015, Swaziland lost its eligibility for benefits under the US African Growth and Opportunity Act after failing to meet benchmarks relating to workers’ rights.

The IMF forecasted that Swaziland’s economy will grow at a slower pace in 2017 because of a region-wide drought, which is likely to hurt Swaziland’s revenue from sugar exports and other agricultural products; tourism and transport sectors will also decline. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and floods are persistent problems. Swaziland’s revenue from SACU receipts also are projected to decline in 2017, making it harder for the government to maintain fiscal balance.
South Africa is a middle-income emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; and a stock exchange that is Africa’s largest and among the top 20 in the world.

Economic growth has decelerated in recent years, slowing to an estimated 0.3% in 2016. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is roughly 26% of the workforce, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. Eskom, the state-run power company, is building three new power stations and is installing new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability; in late 2016 they issued a request for bids to revamp South Africa’s nuclear power generating capabilities. Load shedding and resulting rolling blackouts gripped many parts of South Africa in late 2014 and early 2015 because of electricity supply constraints due to technical problems at some generation units, unavoidable planned maintenance, and an accident at a power station.

South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation; however, the country faces structural constraints that also limit economic growth, such as skills shortages, declining global competitiveness, and frequent work stoppages due to strike action. The government faces growing pressure from urban constituencies to improve the delivery of basic services to low-income areas, to increase job growth, and to provide university level-education at affordable prices. Political infighting among South Africa’s ruling party and the volatility of the Rand risks economic growth. International investors are concerned about the country’s long-term economic stability; as of December 2016, most major international credit ratings agencies placed South Africa only one level above junk bond status.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$10.94 billion (2016 est.)
$11.01 billion (2015 est.)
$10.81 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$739.1 billion (2016 est.)
$735.4 billion (2015 est.)
$726.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-0.6% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2014 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,800 (2016 est.)
$9,800 (2015 est.)
$9,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$13,500 (2016 est.)
$13,400 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6%
industry: 39.7%
services: 53.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 68.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line63% (2010 est.)
16.6% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.5% (2016 est.)
7.9% (2015 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force295,200 (2013 est.)
21.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10.7%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
agriculture: 4.6%
industry: 23.5%
services: 71.9% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate28% (2014 est.)
28% (2013 est.)
26.8% (2016 est.)
25.4% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index50.4 (2001)
62.5 (2013 est.)
63.4 (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.299 billion
expenditures: $1.672 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $76.62 billion
expenditures: $86.45 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessoft drink concentrates, coal, forestry, sugar, textiles, and apparel
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate-0.6% (2016 est.)
-1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productssugarcane, corn, cotton, citrus, pineapples, cattle, goats
corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
Exports$1.276 billion (2016 est.)
$1.698 billion (2015 est.)
$83.16 billion (2016 est.)
$81.63 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoft drink concentrates, sugar, timber, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus, and canned fruit
gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
Imports$1.178 billion (2016 est.)
$11.36 billion (2015 est.)
$85.03 billion (2016 est.)
$84.33 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmotor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Debt - external$366 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$339.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$129.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$131.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesemalangeni per US dollar -
16.15 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
rand (ZAR) per US dollar -
15.7 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
1 April - 31 March
Public debt8.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
9% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$696.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$698.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$44.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$195 million (2016 est.)
$425 million (2015 est.)
-$9.624 billion (2016 est.)
-$13.95 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.218 billion (2016 est.)
$280.4 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$128.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$124.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$168.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$162.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$203.1 million (31 December 2007)
$199.9 million (31 December 2006)
$735.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$933.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$942.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate7.25% (31 December 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
5.75% (31 December 2014)
7% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
10.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.42% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.003 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$878.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$209 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$196.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$440.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$365 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$99.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$91.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.285 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.017 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$172.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$192.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 74.7%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SwazilandSouth Africa
Electricity - production123 million kWh (2016 est.)
235 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.084 billion kWh (2016 est.)
212 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports961 million kWh (2016 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
466,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
950 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity69,600 kW (2016 est.)
46 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels13% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
90.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
4.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
4.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
488,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption5,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
663,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
131,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,029 bbl/day (2013 est.)
169,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
482 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 900,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 40%
electrification - rural areas: 24% (2013)
population without electricity: 7,700,000
electrification - total population: 85%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 77% (2013)

Telecommunications

SwazilandSouth Africa
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 43,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,131,055
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 941,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (July 2015 est.)
total: 85.197 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system
domestic: Swaziland recently awarded a second mobile-cellular service; communication infrastructure has a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscriber base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons in 2015; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.sz
.za
Internet userstotal: 436,000
percent of population: 30.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 27.868 million
percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-owned TV station; satellite dishes are able to access South African providers; state-owned radio network with 3 channels; 1 private radio station (2017)
the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV; e.tv, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and international channels; well-developed mix of public and private radio stations at the national, regional, and local levels; the SABC radio network, state-owned and controlled but nominally independent, operates 18 stations, one for each of the 11 official languages, 4 community stations, and 3 commercial stations; more than 100 community-based stations extend coverage to rural areas (2007)

Transportation

SwazilandSouth Africa
Railwaystotal: 301 km
narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 20,986 km
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge (80 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified)
other: 1,150 km (passenger rail, gauge unspecified, 1,115.5 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 3,594 km
paved: 1,078 km
unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)
total: 747,014 km
paved: 158,952 km
unpaved: 588,062 km (2014)
Airports14 (2013)
566 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
total: 144
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 422
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 258
under 914 m: 132 (2013)

Military

SwazilandSouth Africa
Military branchesUmbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes Air Wing (no operational aircraft)) (2013)
South African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; compulsory HIV testing required, only HIV-negative applicants accepted (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.79% of GDP (2015)
1.81% of GDP (2014)
1.87% of GDP (2013)
1.86% of GDP (2012)
2.15% of GDP (2011)
1.1% of GDP (2015)
1.11% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2013)
1.13% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

SwazilandSouth Africa
Disputes - internationalin 2006, Swazi king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River

Source: CIA Factbook