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Swaziland vs. Mozambique

Introduction

SwazilandMozambique
BackgroundAutonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, Africa's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but the legal status of political parties was not defined and their status remains unclear. Swaziland has surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have continued to engage in a low-level insurgency since 2012.

Geography

SwazilandMozambique
LocationSouthern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates26 30 S, 31 30 E
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 17,364 sq km
land: 17,204 sq km
water: 160 sq km
total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than New Jersey
slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 546 km
border countries (2): Mozambique 108 km, South Africa 438 km
total: 4,783 km
border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
2,470 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatevaries from tropical to near temperate
tropical to subtropical
Terrainmostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 305 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
mean elevation: 345 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resourcesasbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land useagricultural land: 68.3%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 57.7%
forest: 31.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 56.3%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land500 sq km (2012)
1,180 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdrought
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issueslimited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Demographics

SwazilandMozambique
Population1,451,428
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
25,930,150
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 35.5% (male 260,507/female 254,811)
15-24 years: 22.19% (male 162,880/female 159,229)
25-54 years: 34.12% (male 256,696/female 238,471)
55-64 years: 4.28% (male 24,758/female 37,399)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 21,842/female 34,835) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.4 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 21.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.1 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.1% (2016 est.)
2.45% (2016 est.)
Birth rate24.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.66 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 51.6 years
male: 52.2 years
female: 51 years (2016 est.)
total population: 53.3 years
male: 52.6 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate28.8% (2015 est.)
10.55% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groupsAfrican 97%, European 3%
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS218,600 (2015 est.)
1,505,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 90% (Zionist - a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship - 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, other 30% - includes Anglican, Methodist, Mormon, Jehovah's Witness), Muslim 2%, other 8% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, indigenous religionist, Jewish) (2015 est.)
Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,800 (2015 est.)
39,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 87.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
Education expenditures7.1% of GDP (2014)
6.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 21.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.6% of population
rural: 68.9% of population
total: 74.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.4% of population
rural: 31.1% of population
total: 25.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 63.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 57.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 36.9% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 42.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMBABANE (capital) 66,000 (2014)
MAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate389 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.8% (2014)
15.6% (2011)
Health expenditures9.3% of GDP (2014)
7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.15 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.8% (2014)
4.5% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2006/07 est.)
18.9 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileSwaziland, a small, predominantly rural, landlocked country surrounded by South Africa and Mozambique, suffers from severe poverty and the world’s highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. A weak and deteriorating economy, high unemployment, rapid population growth, and an uneven distribution of resources all combine to worsen already persistent poverty and food insecurity, especially in rural areas. Erratic weather (frequent droughts and intermittent heavy rains and flooding), overuse of small plots, the overgrazing of cattle, and outdated agricultural practices reduce crop yields and further degrade the environment, exacerbating Swaziland’s poverty and subsistence problems. Swaziland’s extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate – more than 28% of adults have the disease – compounds these issues. Agricultural production has declined due to HIV/AIDS, as the illness causes households to lose manpower and to sell livestock and other assets to pay for medicine and funerals.
Swazis, mainly men from the country’s rural south, have been migrating to South Africa to work in coal, and later gold, mines since the late 19th century. Although the number of miners abroad has never been high in absolute terms because of Swaziland’s small population, the outflow has had important social and economic repercussions. The peak of mining employment in South Africa occurred during the 1980s. Cross-border movement has accelerated since the 1990s, as increasing unemployment has pushed more Swazis to look for work in South Africa (creating a “brain drain” in the health and educational sectors); southern Swazi men have continued to pursue mining, although the industry has downsized. Women now make up an increasing share of migrants and dominate cross-border trading in handicrafts, using the proceeds to purchase goods back in Swaziland. Much of today’s migration, however, is not work-related but focuses on visits to family and friends, tourism, and shopping.
Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
Contraceptive prevalence rate66.1% (2014)
11.6% (2011)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 69.3
youth dependency ratio: 63.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.8
youth dependency ratio: 88.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5
potential support ratio: 15.3 (2015 est.)

Government

SwazilandMozambique
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
etymology: ""Land of the Swazi"" people; the name ""Swazi"" derives from 19th century King MSWATI II, under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified
"
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
Government typeabsolute monarchy
presidential republic
Capitalname: Mbabane (administrative capital); Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence6 September 1968 (from the UK)
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day (Somhlolo Day), 6 September (1968)
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitutionprevious 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2016)
previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
Suffrage18 years of age
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Paul DLAMINI (since 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among elected members of the House of Assembly
chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 10 members appointed by the monarch; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held on 20 September 2013 (next scheduled for September 2018)
election results: House of Assembly - no results of the election were released; note - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; for each constituency the candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 12 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices
subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)
note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leadersthe status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution; the following are considered political associations:
African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Sibusiso DLAMINI]
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Alvit DLAMINI]
People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU]
Swaziland Democratic Party or SWADEPA [Jan SITHOLE]
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUS]
Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leadersSwaziland United Democratic Front or SUDF
Trade Union Congress of Swaziland or TUCOSWA
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTA, president]
Youth Parliament (parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Njabuliso Busisiwe Sikhulile GWEBU (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lisa PETERSON (since January 2016)
embassy: corner of MR 103 and Cultural Center Drive, Ezulwini
mailing address: P.O. Box D202, The Gables, H106
telephone: [268] 2417-9000
FAX: [268] 2416-3344
chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally; blue stands for peace and stability, red represents past struggles, and yellow the mineral resources of the country; the shield, spears, and staff symbolize protection from the country's enemies, while the black and white of the shield are meant to portray black and white people living in peaceful coexistence
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
National anthem"name: ""Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati"" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT
note: adopted 1968; uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles
"
"name: ""Patria Amada"" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion, elephant; national colors: blue, yellow, red
national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Swaziland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SwazilandMozambique
Economy - overviewA small, landlocked kingdom, Swaziland is bordered in the north, west and south by the Republic of South Africa and by Mozambique in the east. Swaziland depends on South Africa for 60% of its exports and for more than 90% of its imports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively relinquishing Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) for 49% of revenue; income tax accounts for 27% and a valued added tax for 19% of revenues. Swaziland is a lower middle income country, but its income distribution is highly skewed, with an estimated 20% of the population controlling 80% of the nation’s wealth. As of 2017, more than one-quarter of the adult population was infected by HIV/AIDS; Swaziland has the world’s highest HIV prevalence rate.

Subsistence agriculture employs approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector diversified in the 1980s and 1990s, but manufacturing has grown little in the last decade. Sugar and soft drink concentrate are the largest foreign exchange earners. Mining has declined in importance in recent years. Coal, gold, diamond, and quarry stone mines are small scale, and the only iron ore mine closed in 2014.

With an estimated 28% unemployment rate, Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and to attract foreign direct investment is acute. On 1 January 2015, Swaziland lost its eligibility for benefits under the US African Growth and Opportunity Act after failing to meet benchmarks relating to workers’ rights.

The IMF forecasted that Swaziland’s economy will grow at a slower pace in 2017 because of a region-wide drought, which is likely to hurt Swaziland’s revenue from sugar exports and other agricultural products; tourism and transport sectors will also decline. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and floods are persistent problems. Swaziland’s revenue from SACU receipts also are projected to decline in 2017, making it harder for the government to maintain fiscal balance.
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $35 billion in 2016. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities.

In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.

A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, the Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries.

Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans originally secured between 2012-2014 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion, which prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. This sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to weak growth in 2016 and forebode weaker economic growth in the next few years.

Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but growth slowed in 2016 to about 3.5% as low commodity prices reduced export earnings. However, many forecasts predict an increase in growth in 2017 as coal exports grow. Two major international consortiums are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$10.94 billion (2016 est.)
$11.01 billion (2015 est.)
$10.81 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$35.01 billion (2016 est.)
$33.79 billion (2015 est.)
$31.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-0.6% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2014 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,800 (2016 est.)
$9,800 (2015 est.)
$9,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6%
industry: 39.7%
services: 53.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 25.3%
industry: 19.8%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line63% (2010 est.)
46.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.5% (2016 est.)
7.9% (2015 est.)
17.1% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force295,200 (2013 est.)
13.31 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10.7%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate28% (2014 est.)
28% (2013 est.)
22.4% (2014 est.)
17% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index50.4 (2001)
45.6 (2008)
47.3 (2002)
Budgetrevenues: $1.299 billion
expenditures: $1.672 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $2.554 billion
expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessoft drink concentrates, coal, forestry, sugar, textiles, and apparel
aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate-0.6% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productssugarcane, corn, cotton, citrus, pineapples, cattle, goats
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Exports$1.276 billion (2016 est.)
$1.698 billion (2015 est.)
$3.132 billion (2016 est.)
$3.413 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoft drink concentrates, sugar, timber, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus, and canned fruit
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Imports$1.178 billion (2016 est.)
$11.36 billion (2015 est.)
$5.151 billion (2016 est.)
$7.577 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmotor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Debt - external$366 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$339.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesemalangeni per US dollar -
16.15 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
62.07 (2016 est.)
39.983 (2015 est.)
39.983 (2014 est.)
31.367 (2013 est.)
28.38 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
calendar year
Public debt8.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
9% of GDP (2017 est.)
100.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$696.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$698.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$195 million (2016 est.)
$425 million (2015 est.)
-$4.386 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.833 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.218 billion (2016 est.)
$12.05 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$203.1 million (31 December 2007)
$199.9 million (31 December 2006)
$NA
Central bank discount rate7.25% (31 December 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
9.5% (17 January 2013)
3.25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
24.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.87% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.003 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$878.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.702 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.565 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$440.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$365 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.961 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.285 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.017 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.871 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 74.7%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
5% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SwazilandMozambique
Electricity - production123 million kWh (2016 est.)
17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.084 billion kWh (2016 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013)
10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports961 million kWh (2016 est.)
7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity69,600 kW (2016 est.)
2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels13% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption5,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,029 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 900,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 40%
electrification - rural areas: 24% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,700,000
electrification - total population: 39%
electrification - urban areas: 66%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)

Telecommunications

SwazilandMozambique
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 43,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 89,292
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 941,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (July 2015 est.)
total: 20.135 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system
domestic: Swaziland recently awarded a second mobile-cellular service; communication infrastructure has a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscriber base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons in 2015; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; 3 mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.sz
.mz
Internet userstotal: 436,000
percent of population: 30.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.277 million
percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-owned TV station; satellite dishes are able to access South African providers; state-owned radio network with 3 channels; 1 private radio station (2017)
1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

SwazilandMozambique
Railwaystotal: 301 km
narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 3,594 km
paved: 1,078 km
unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)
total: 31,083 km
paved: 7,365 km
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
Airports14 (2013)
98 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)

Military

SwazilandMozambique
Military branchesUmbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes Air Wing (no operational aircraft)) (2013)
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; compulsory HIV testing required, only HIV-negative applicants accepted (2012)
registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.79% of GDP (2015)
1.81% of GDP (2014)
1.87% of GDP (2013)
1.86% of GDP (2012)
2.15% of GDP (2011)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.02% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
0.91% of GDP (2012)
0.91% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

SwazilandMozambique
Disputes - internationalin 2006, Swazi king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Source: CIA Factbook