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Suriname vs. Brazil

Introduction

SurinameBrazil
BackgroundFirst explored by the Spaniards in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century, Suriname became a Dutch colony in 1667. With the abolition of African slavery in 1863, workers were brought in from India and Java. The Netherlands granted the colony independence in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared Suriname a socialist republic. It continued to exert control through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally forced a democratic election. In 1990, the military overthrew the civilian leadership, but a democratically elected government - a four-party coalition - returned to power in 1991. The coalition expanded to eight parties in 2005 and ruled until August 2010, when voters returned former military leader Desire BOUTERSE and his opposition coalition to power. President BOUTERSE was reelected unopposed in 2015.
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.

Geography

SurinameBrazil
LocationNorthern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates4 00 N, 56 00 W
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 163,820 sq km
land: 156,000 sq km
water: 7,820 sq km
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Georgia
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 1,907 km
border countries (3): Brazil 515 km, French Guiana 556 km, Guyana 836 km
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
Coastline386 km
7,491 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; moderated by trade winds
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrainmostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 246 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m
highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resourcestimber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land useagricultural land: 0.5%
arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
forest: 94.6%
other: 4.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land570 sq km (2012)
54,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issuesdeforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notesmallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Population distributionpopulation concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brazilia, and Rio de Janeiro

Demographics

SurinameBrazil
Population585,824 (July 2016 est.)
205,823,665 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.15% (male 75,088/female 72,261)
15-24 years: 17.46% (male 52,129/female 50,141)
25-54 years: 44.36% (male 132,334/female 127,562)
55-64 years: 7.16% (male 20,564/female 21,394)
65 years and over: 5.86% (male 14,848/female 19,503) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 22.79% (male 23,905,185/female 22,994,222)
15-24 years: 16.43% (male 17,146,060/female 16,661,163)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 44,750,568/female 45,489,430)
55-64 years: 8.89% (male 8,637,011/female 9,656,370)
65 years and over: 8.06% (male 7,059,944/female 9,523,712) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.5 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 29.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.6 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.05% (2016 est.)
0.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 25.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.2 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 74.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.8 years
male: 70.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.08% (2015 est.)
0.58% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groups"Hindustani (also known locally as ""East Indians""; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 27.4%, ""Maroon"" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 21.7%, Creole (mixed white and black) 15.7%, Javanese 13.7%, mixed 13.4%, other 7.6%, unspecified 0.6% (2012 est.)
"
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS3,800 (2015 est.)
826,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 23.6% (includes Evangelical 11.2%, Moravian 11.2%, Reformed .7%, Lutheran .5%), Hindu 22.3%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Muslim 13.8%, other Christian 3.2%, Winti 1.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 1.7%, none 7.5%, unspecified 3.2% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2015 est.)
15,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesDutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is the native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.6%
male: 96.1%
female: 95% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Education expendituresNA
6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.1% of population
rural: 88.4% of population
total: 94.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.9% of population
rural: 11.6% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88.4% of population
rural: 61.4% of population
total: 79.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.6% of population
rural: 38.6% of population
total: 20.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationPARAMARIBO (capital) 234,000 (2014)
Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate155 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.8% (2010)
2.2% (2007)
Health expenditures5.7% of GDP (2014)
8.3% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density3.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26.1% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 6,094
percentage: 6% (2006 est.)
total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
Demographic profileSuriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles (persons of mixed African and European heritage), the descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese contract workers. The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.
Some 350,000 people of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands. World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mid-1980s, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.
Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.8
youth dependency ratio: 40.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.7
youth dependency ratio: 33.3
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)

Government

SurinameBrazil
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form: Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana
etymology: name may derive from the indigenous ""Surinen"" people who inhabited the area at the time of European contact
"
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government typepresidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capitalname: Paramaribo
geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 November (1975)
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitutionprevious 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987; amended 1992 (2016)
several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - the Commissie Nieuw Surinaamse Burgerlijk Wetboek completed drafting a new civil code in February 2009
civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held on 25 May 2020)
election results: Desire Delano BOUTERSE reelected president; National Assembly vote - NA
chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NDP 45.5%, V7 37.2%, A-Com 10.5%, DOE 4.3%, PALU .7%, other 1.7%; seats by party - NDP 26, V7 18, A-Com 5, DOE 1, PALU 1; note - as of 1 April 2017, the current composition of the legislature is as follows: seats by party - NDP 26, VHP 9, Pertjajah Luhur 3, NPS 2, ABOP 5, BEP 2, DOE 1, PALU 1, 2 parliamentarians form an independent faction
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
Judicial branchhighest resident court(s): High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges); note - appeals beyond the High Court are referred to the Caribbean Court of Justice; human rights violations can be appealed to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights with judgments issued by the Inter-American Court on Human Rights
judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president in consultation with the National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, and the Order of Private Attorneys; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: cantonal courts
highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Political parties and leadersAlternative Combination or A-Com (a coalition that includes ABOP, KTPI, PDO)
Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Celsius WATERBERG]
Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Angelique DEL CASTILLO]
General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK}
National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE]
National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND]
Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]
Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]
People's Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO]
Progressive Worker and Farmer's Union or PALU [Jim HOK]
Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN]
United Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI]
Victory 7 or V7 (formerly the New Front for Democracy and Development or NF) (a coalition including NPS, VHP, DA91, PL, SPA) [Chandrikapresad SANTOKHI]
note: following the 25 May 2015 election, the the Victory 7, or V7 collaboration of parties dissolved and its component parties became separate parties once again
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Political pressure groups and leadersAssociation of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]
Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]
Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participationACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sylvana Elvira SIMSON (since 1 September 2015)
chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Edwin R. NOLAN (since 11 January 2016)
embassy: 165 Kristalstraat, Paramaribo
mailing address: US Department of State, PO Box 1821, Paramaribo
telephone: [597] 472-900
FAX: [597] 410-972
chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Flag descriptionfive horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); a large, yellow, five-pointed star is centered in the red band; red stands for progress and love; green symbolizes hope and fertility; white signifies peace, justice, and freedom; the star represents the unity of all ethnic groups; from its yellow light the nation draws strength to bear sacrifices patiently while working toward a golden future
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""God zij met ons Suriname!"" (God Be With Our Suriname)
lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY
note: adopted 1959; originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893 and contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo
"
"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)royal palm, faya lobi (flower); national colors: green, white, red, yellow
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

SurinameBrazil
Economy - overviewSuriname’s economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of oil and gold accounting for approximately 85% of exports and 27% of government revenues. This makes the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. The worldwide drop in international commodity prices and the cessation of alumina mining in Suriname significantly reduced government revenue and national income during the past few years. After 99 years of operations, a major US aluminum company recently discontinued its activities in Suriname. Public sector revenues fell, together with exports, international reserves, employment, and private sector investment.

Economic growth declined annually from just under 5% in 2012 to -10.4% in 2016. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. Suriname began instituting macro adjustments between September 2015 and 2016; these included another 20% currency devaluation in November 2015 and foreign currency interventions by the Central Bank until March 2016, after which time the Bank allowed the Surinamese Dollar (SRD) to float. By December 2016, the SRD had lost 46% of its value against the dollar. High import price pass-through from depreciation and electricity tariff increases caused inflation to increase 55.5% year-over-year in December 2016.

Suriname's economic prospects for the medium-term will depend on continued commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and on the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The government's over-reliance on revenue from the extractive sector colors Suriname's economic outlook. One credit bureau forecasted that the economy would contract 2% in 2017. Rising international oil prices and higher production by Suriname’s oil company, Staatsolie’s, will lift oil exports. Two new offshore oil exploration wells will draw 100 million dollars in foreign direct investment inflows. Higher gold prices and increased production from the Merian gold mine also will lift exports. However, investment overall is slowing and unemployment is rising, reflecting government spending cuts, weak business confidence, and the completion of large mining infrastructure projects. Fiscal problems, such as a failure to secure sufficient external financing, could result in additional pressure on the exchange rate and inflation.
Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian Real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved—some of the largest in Brazil—has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, the trade bloc adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments to difficult to enact.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$8.547 billion (2016 est.)
$9.188 billion (2015 est.)
$9.216 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.192 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.371 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-7% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
1.8% (2014 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,200 (2016 est.)
$16,500 (2015 est.)
$16,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,800 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.7%
industry: 49.9%
services: 43.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 22.7%
services: 72%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line70% (2002 est.)
"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)52.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
25.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
10.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force144,000 (2014 est.)
101.9 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11.2%
industry: 19.5%
services: 69.3% (2010)
agriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
Unemployment rate8.9% (2014 est.)
8.5% (2013 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $469.9 million
expenditures: $664.3 million (2016 est.)
revenues: $311.9 billion
expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesbauxite and gold mining, alumina production; oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate-2% (2016 est.)
-8.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; shrimp; forest products
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Exports$1.699 billion (2016 est.)
$1.666 billion (2015 est.)
$189.7 billion (2016 est.)
$191.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesalumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 21.9%, UAE 14.6%, India 13.5%, Belgium 9.7%, US 9%, France 8.1%, Canada 6.6% (2015)
China 18.6%, US 12.7%, Argentina 6.7%, Netherlands 5.3% (2015)
Imports$1.914 billion (2016 est.)
$1.973 billion (2015 est.)
$134.2 billion (2016 est.)
$171.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports - partnersUS 26.7%, Netherlands 14.3%, China 12.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.4%, Japan 4.8% (2015)
China 17.9%, US 15.6%, Germany 6.1%, Argentina 6% (2015)
Debt - external$1.439 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSurinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar -
6.172 (2016 est.)
3.4167 (2015 est.)
3.4167 (2014 est.)
3.3 (2013 est.)
3.3 (2012 est.)
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.39 (2016 est.)
3.3315 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
1.95 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt67.8% of GDP (31 December 2016 est.)
73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$393 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$625.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$157 million (2016 est.)
-$808 million (2015 est.)
-$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
-$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$3.251 billion (2016 est.)
$1.77 trillion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate10% (2013)
9% (2012)
13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate13.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
12.62% (31 December 2015 est.)
47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.653 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.224 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$882.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.231 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$3.461 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.885 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues11.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15.3%
male: 11.6%
female: 21.7% (2013 est.)
total: 15%
male: 12.3%
female: 18.7% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 65.4%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.2%
investment in inventories: 26.5%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 62.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 12.8%
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving57% of GDP (2016 est.)
51% of GDP (2015 est.)
62.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SurinameBrazil
Electricity - production2.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production17,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves88.97 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2011 es)
471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity400,000 kW (2014 est.)
135 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels41.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants56.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production15,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption17,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports12,980 bbl/day (2013 est.)
296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports10,260 bbl/day (2013 est.)
519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
535 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)

Telecommunications

SurinameBrazil
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 85,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 43,677,141
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 991,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 171 (July 2015 est.)
total: 257.814 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: international facilities are good
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is 185 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network is in place
international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2015)
Internet country code.sr
.br
Internet userstotal: 248,000
percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 120.676 million
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2007)
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Transportation

SurinameBrazil
Roadwaystotal: 4,304 km
paved: 1,130 km
unpaved: 3,174 km (2003)
total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Waterways1,200 km (most navigable by ships with drafts up to 7 m) (2011)
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
Pipelinesoil 50 km (2013)
condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Paramaribo, Wageningen
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
Airports55 (2013)
4,093 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 49
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)

Military

SurinameBrazil
Military branchesSuriname Army (National Leger, NL): Army, Coast Guard, Air Force (2017)
Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; personnel drawn almost exclusively from the Creole community (2012)
"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"

Transnational Issues

SurinameBrazil
Disputes - internationalarea claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks UN Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters
uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Illicit drugsgrowing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe via the Netherlands and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)

Source: CIA Factbook